See also: , , and
U+9670, 陰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9670

[U+966F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9671]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 170, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓中人戈戈 (NLOII), four-corner 78231, composition )

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1353, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41691
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1855, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4138, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+9670

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

According to Shuowen, a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *qrɯm): semantic + phonetic ().

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r(u/i)m (dark; shade; dusk; twilight); compare Tibetan རུམ (rum, darkness), Jingpho rim (to be dusk) (Benedict, 1972; Bodman, 1980; STEDT).

Schuessler (2007) compares it instead to Burmese အုံ့ (um., to become overcast), Adi mugyum (shade; shadow), Lepcha [script needed] (so-dyŭm, shade).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • im - literary;
  • iam - vernacular (limited, e.g. 半陰陽).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (140)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter 'im
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔˠiɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔᵚim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔiem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔjim/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔjəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yīn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jam1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*q(r)um/
    English dark

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6623
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qrɯm/

    Definitions edit

    1. cloudy; overcast; gloomy
        ―  yīn'àn  ―  dark; gloomy
        ―  Tiān yīn le.  ―  The sky is overcast.
        ―  yīn zhuǎn qíng  ―  cloudy to fine
    2. hidden; secret
      陽奉阳奉  ―  yángfèngyīnwéi  ―  to overtly agree but covertly oppose; to comply in public but oppose in private
    3. negative
        ―  yīn  ―  cathode
      離子离子  ―  yīnlízǐ  ―  anion; negative ion
    4. the Moon
        ―  tàiyīn  ―  moon
        ―  yīn  ―  lunar calendar
    5. shade; shadow
        ―  shùyīn  ―  shade of a tree
        ―  bèiyīn  ―  to be in the shade
    6. north of a mountain or south of a river
        ―  shānyīn  ―  northern side of a mountain
        ―  Jiāngyīn  ―  Jiangyin (a county situated on the south side of the Yangtze River)
    7. back side
        ―  bēiyīn  ―  posterior of a stele
    8. of the nether world; of ghosts
        ―  yīnjiān  ―  afterworld; netherworld
      相隔相隔  ―  yīnyáng xiànggé  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    9. (philosophy) "female" principle; yin in yin-yang
    10. in intaglio
        ―  yīnwén  ―  intagliated characters or designs
    11. treacherous; deceitful; cheating
        ―  yīnxiǎn  ―  treacherous
      玩兒 [MSC, trad.]
      玩儿 [MSC, simp.]
      Hǎo wa, nǐ gǎn gēn wǒ wánr yīn de! [Pinyin]
      Fine, you dare play dirty with me!
    12. (dialectal) to deceive; to trick; to trap
      今兒個 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      今儿个 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Wǒ jīnrge ràng rén gěi yīn le. [Pinyin]
      Today I have been tricked by someone.
    13. (Chinese phonetics, of a syllable) open; not having a consonant coda
    14. (Cantonese) bangs; fringe
      alt. forms: 𩬎
    15. genitalia (of humans)
        ―  yīndào  ―  vagina
        ―  wàiyīn  ―  vulva
    16. a surname

    Antonyms edit

    See also edit

    The tones (of Chinese) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
    平仄 (píngzè) (píng)
    平聲平声 (píngshēng)
    ()
    仄聲仄声 (zèshēng)
    平上去入 (píngshǎngqùrù)
    四聲四声 (sìshēng)
    (píng)
    平聲平声 (píngshēng)
    (shǎng)
    上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
    ()
    去聲去声 (qùshēng)
    ()
    入聲入声 (rùshēng)
    標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
    標調法标调法
    四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜂◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜆
    [Term?] ◌〪 ◌〫 ◌〬 ◌〭
    傍點傍点 ◌〮 ◌〯
    四聲八調四声八调 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng) 陽平阳平 (yángpíng) 陰上阴上 (yīnshǎng) 陽上阳上 (yángshǎng) 陰去阴去 (yīnqù) 陽去阳去 (yángqù) 陰入阴入 (yīnrù) 陽入阳入 (yángrù)
    (yīn) (yáng)
    標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
    標調法标调法
    四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇
    The tones (of Standard Mandarin) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
    四聲四声 (sìshēng) 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng)
    一聲一声
    陽平阳平 (yángpíng)
    二聲二声 (èrshēng)
    上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
    三聲三声 (sānshēng)
    去聲去声 (qùshēng)
    四聲四声 (sìshēng)
    輕聲轻声 (qīngshēng)

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    • Proto-Tai: *rɤmᴮ (shade)
      • Thai: ร่ม (rôm, shade, umbrella, parachute)

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. hidden
    2. dark
    3. negative

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Synonyms edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かげ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かげ) (kage

    1. shadow, shade
      ()(かげ)
      ki no kage
      a shadow of a tree
    2. hidden side
      (かげ)(うご)(まわ)
      kage de ugoki mawaru
      maneuver in a hidden side
      (かげ)()(はい)(しゃ)
      kage no shihaisha
      a hidden ruler
    See also edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    いん
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ʔˠiɪm).

    Pronunciation edit

    Affix edit

    (いん) (in

    1. shade; shadow
    2. shadow of the sun; (figuratively) time
    3. secret; unknown
    4. genitalia
    5. negative; “female”; quiescent; minus
    6. (philosophy) yin
    7. north side of mountain; south side of water
    8. the moon

    Noun edit

    (いん) (in

    1. (philosophy) yin
    2. (literary) shady area; (陰に) in the shade; secretly; in private

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ほと
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /hoto2/: *[potə] → [ɸoto] → [hoto]. As indicated in the Wamyōshō citation, /to2/ may be related to (/to1/, place, location), but the phonological difference can not be explained. Perhaps related to Korean 보지 (boji, vagina).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ほと) (hoto

    1. female genitalia
      • 712, Kojiki
        因生此子、美蕃登此三字以音。見灸而病臥在。
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      • 712, Kojiki
        逆剥天斑馬剥而、所墮入時、天服織女見驚而、於梭衝陰上而死。訓陰上云富登
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. (by extension) male genitalia
      Synonyms: see Thesaurus:陰茎
    Synonyms edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Alternative forms edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC 'im).

    Recorded as Middle Korean /ᅙᅳᆷ (Yale: qum) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

    Recorded as Middle Korean / (um) (Yale: um) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 그늘 (geuneul eum))

    1. Hanja form? of (dark; shady).
    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Related to Middle Chinese (MC 'omH, “dark; gloomy”).

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 침묵할 (chimmukhal am))

    1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (to be silent).
    Synonyms edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Compounds edit

    Etymology edit

    Cognate with Japanese (hoto).

    Noun edit

    (ほー) (

    1. female genitalia

    References edit

    • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[3], 1963

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: âm, ơm

    1. chữ Hán form of âm (yin).

    Compounds edit