U+660F, 昏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-660F

[U+660E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6610]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 72, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹心日 (HPA), four-corner 72604, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 491, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13806
  • Dae Jaweon: page 854, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1492, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+660F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-mun (dark). Cognate with (OC *mɯːns, “bored; depressed”), Tibetan མུན་པ (mun pa, darkness), Burmese မှုန် (hmun, dim; gloomy).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hun - literary;
  • hng/huiⁿ - vernacular.
Note:
  • hung1 - literary;
  • hng1/hên1 - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xuən⁵⁵/
    Harbin /xuən⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /xuən²¹/
    Jinan /xuẽ²¹³/
    Qingdao /xuə̃²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /xuən²⁴/
    Xi'an /xuẽ²¹/
    Xining /xuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /xuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /xũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /xuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /xuən⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /xuən⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /xuen⁵⁵/
    Kunming /xuə̃/
    Nanjing /xun³¹/
    Hefei /xuən²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /xuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /xũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /huəŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /huən⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /hun³³/
    Wenzhou /ɕy³³/
    Hui Shexian /xuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /xuɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /fən³³/
    Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /fɨn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /fun⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /fun²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /fɐn⁵³/
    Nanning /wɐn⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /fɐn⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hun⁵⁵/
    /hŋ̍⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /huŋ³³/
    /hŋ̍³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hun²³/
    /hui²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (55)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /huən/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /huon/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xuən/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hwən/
    Li
    Rong
    /xuən/
    Wang
    Li
    /xuən/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xuən/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hūn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hūn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xwon ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m̥ˁu[n]/
    English dusk, dark

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5529
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hmɯːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. dusk; nightfall; twilight; dark
    2. confused; dizzy; dazed; muddled
    3. to faint; to lose consciousness

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. dark
    2. evening, dusk

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC huən). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: hwon) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 어두울 (eoduul hon))

    1. Hanja form? of (dark; dusk).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hôn, hon)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.