See also: and
U+6606, 昆
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6606

[U+6605]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6607]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 72, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 日心心 (APP), four-corner 60711, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 490, character 39
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13792
  • Dae Jaweon: page 852, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1489, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6606

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𥊽

𣋥
𧲟

Glyph originEdit

Ideogrammic compound (會意): + .

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
“elder brother”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)əw-n (elder brother; senior male relative); cognate with (OC *ɡuʔ, “maternal uncle”) (Benedict, 1972; STEDT).
Alternatively, it may be related to Middle Mon ကော (kao, elder brother), with nominal suffix -n added (Schuessler, 2007).
“descendants; later”
Perhaps from Proto-Mon-Khmer *kuun (child); cognate with Min (“son; child”) (Schuessler, 2007) and with ancient Chu dialect (OC *koːn, “child; offspring”) (Ye, 2014); cf. also some rear meanings of the characters (OC *kroːns, “young child”), (OC *kuːn, “roe; fish egg”) and (OC *kruːn, “roe”) (ibid.). In modern Wu dialects the character (OC *koːn) is used to mean "children" (ibid.).
“many; numerous”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-kul (twenty; all); cognate with (OC *ɡlun, “herd; all”) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

is pronounced with aspirated initial /kʰ/ instead of the expected /k/ in the majority of modern varieties of Chinese. The /k/ sound in (MC kuən) was changed to /kʰ/ during its historical development to avoid homophony with (MC kuən, “underclothing”), a word that was historically in vernacular use (Hirayama, 2005).

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gwan1 - literary;
  • kwan1 - vernacular.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (55)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuən/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuon/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuən/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwən/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuən/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuən/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuən/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gūn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwan1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kūn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwon ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ˁu[n]/
    English elder brother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7519
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuːn/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (obsolete) together
    2. (literary) elder brother
    3. (literary) descendants
    4. (obsolete) later
    5. (obsolete) many; numerous
      /   ―  kūnchóng  ―  insect
    6. (obsolete) Alternative form of (kūn).
    7. Short for 昆明 (Kūnmíng).
      鐵路 / 铁路  ―  Chéng Kūn Tiělù  ―  Chengdu–Kunming railway
    8. a surname.
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 昆侖昆仑 (húnlún), alternative form of 渾淪浑沦 (húnlún).

    Etymology 3Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (hùn, “to unite”).
    2. 54th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "unity" (𝌻)

    Etymology 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
    Notes:

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. A swarm of or an organism that swarms (e.g. bugs), an organism that forms in large groups (e.g. kombu)
    2. elder brother
    3. descendants, great-great-great-great grandchild

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuən). Recorded as Middle Korean (kwon) (Yale: kwon) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 맏형 (macheong gon))

    1. Hanja form? of (swarm).
    2. Hanja form? of (the eldest brother).

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: côn
    : Hán Nôm readings: con, gon

    NounEdit

    (con)

    1. Nôm form of con (child).