See also: 日月
U+660E, 明
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-660E

[U+660D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+660F]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 72, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 日月 (AB), four-corner 67020, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 491, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13805
  • Dae Jaweon: page 852, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1491, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+660E

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms


𤰾

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (sun) +  (moon) – the sun just rising and the moon not yet set – dawn (天明). Alternatively, it may be interpreted as two bright celestial bodies – bright. This form was already found in the oracle bone script and was prevalent throughout the eras.

Three other forms were found in the oracle bone script:

  • < (window) +  – the moon shining through a window – moonlight. This form was also prevalent in the ancient scripts and was considered to be the standard form in Shuowen. See this form's entry for its historical forms.
  • < (eye) +  – bright eyes. This form was rarely attested, so it is still uncertain whether this form is actually equivalent to . It reappeared in the bamboo script of the Qin dynasty, but this was probably a corruption of .
  • 𤰾 <  +  – probably a corruption of the above forms.

EtymologyEdit

Of either Proto-Sino-Tibetan origin, compare

Or from Austroasiatic, cognate with (OC *raŋs, “bright”) (Schuessler, 2007). For more see (OC *raŋs).

(OC *mraŋ, *mraːŋs, “covenant”) is a derivative (Schuessler, 2007).

“Akira”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (あきら) (akira).

PronunciationEdit


Note: míngr - "tomorrow".
Note:
  • mìn - literary;
  • miàng, màng - vernacular.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • màng - vernacular;
    • mìng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bêng - literary;
    • bîn, miâ - vernacular;
    • mê/mêe/mî/môa/mâ - vernacular (limited, e.g. 明年).
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3men - vernacular;
    • 3min - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /miajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /miɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    míng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    míng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mraŋ/
    English bright

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9188
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mraŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. bright; light; brilliant
    2. clear; limpid
    3. tomorrow
    4. next; following
    5. to understand
      /   ―  jiǎngmíng  ―  to explain
    6. (~朝) Ming dynasty
    7. A surname​, listed as #111 on the Baijiaxing
    8. () (phonology) a Middle Chinese initial and the 'Phags-pa script letter (m-)
    9. Akira (a Japanese male given name)

    See alsoEdit

    Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
    Name Time period Divisions
    Xia
    (~朝, ~代)
    2070 – 1600 BCE
    Shang
    (~朝, ~代)
    (~朝, ~代)
    1600 – 1046 BCE
    Zhou
    (~朝, ~代)
    1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
    西周
    Eastern Zhou
    東周东周
    Spring and Autumn period
    春秋
    Warring States period
    戰國战国
    Qin
    (~朝, ~代)
    221 – 206 BCE
    Han
    (~朝, ~代)
    206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
    西漢西汉
    Xin
    (~朝)
    Eastern Han
    東漢东汉
    Three Kingdoms
    三國三国
    220 – 280 CE Wei
    Shu
    Wu
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    265 – 420 CE Western Jin
    西晉西晋
    Eastern Jin
    東晉东晋
    Southern and Northern dynasties
    南北朝
    420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
    北朝
    Northern Wei
    北魏
    Western Wei
    西魏
    Eastern Wei
    東魏东魏
    Northern Zhou
    北周
    Northern Qi
    北齊北齐
    Southern dynasties
    南朝
    Liu Song
    劉宋刘宋
    Southern Qi
    南齊南齐
    Liang
    (~朝, ~代)
    Chen
    (~朝, ~代)
    Sui
    (~朝, ~代)
    581 – 618 CE
    Tang
    (~朝, ~代)
    618 – 907 CE
    Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
    五代十國五代十国
    907 – 960 CE
    Liao
    (~朝, ~代)
    907 – 1125 CE
    Song
    (~朝, ~代)
    960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
    北宋
    Southern Song
    南宋
    Western Xia
    西夏
    1038 – 1227 CE
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    1115 – 1234 CE
    Western Liao
    西遼西辽
    1124 – 1218 CE
    Yuan
    (~朝, ~代)
    1271 – 1368 CE
    Ming
    (~朝, ~代)
    1368 – 1644 CE
    Qing
    (~朝, ~代)
    1636 – 1912 CE

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (みょう) (myō); (めい) (mei); (みん) (Min)
    • Korean: (, Myeong)
    • Vietnamese: minh ()

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    めい
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC mˠiæŋ).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    AffixEdit

    (めい) (mei

    1. bright, brightening
    2. clarifying, understanding
    3. brighten, enlighten
    4. open to the world
    5. deity, god
    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (めい) (mei

    1. brightness
    2. insight
    3. eyesight, vision

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    みょう
    Grade: 2
    goon

    /mʲau//mʲɔː//mʲoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC mˠiæŋ).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    The Buddhist senses are a translation of Sanskrit विद्या (vidyā, knowledge, wisdom).[1]

    AffixEdit

    (みょう) (myō (historical kana みやう)

    1. bright
    2. light, lamp
    3. clarifying
    4. passing to the next in time
    5. graceful, respectful
    6. (Buddhism) passing of knowledge, scholarship, or study
    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (みょう) (myō (historical kana みやう)

    1. (Buddhism) knowledge or wisdom that dispels the darkness of ignorance and brings to the realization of truth
    2. (Buddhism) an esoteric mantra

    AdnominalEdit

    (みょう) (myō (historical kana みやう)

    1. this coming...

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    みん
    Grade: 2
    tōon
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    From Mandarin (míng).

    The 唐音 (tōon, literally Tang sound), so likely this reading was borrowed from around the Song dynasty.

    Proper nounEdit

    (みん) (Min

    1. the Ming dynasty (1368-1644)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さや
    Grade: 2
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    さや
    [adverb] , :
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あき(ら)
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of the stem of adjective 明らか (akiraka, clear, visible).

    Proper nounEdit

    (あきら) (Akira

    1. a male given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (myeong) (hangeul , revised myeong, McCune–Reischauer myŏng, Yale myeng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit


    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: minh ((mi)(binh)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: mừng[1][2][3][4][5], minh[2][5], mầng[2][5], miêng[3][5], mênh[3]

    1. Hán tự form of minh (bright; clear).
    2. Hán tự form of Minh (given name).
    3. Nôm form of mừng.

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit


    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit