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See also: ずる



Etymology 1Edit

From Old Japanese root verb (su, to do).[1][2]

As with all verbs, during the Middle Japanese stage in the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal or sentence-ending form) was gradually lost as the 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) came to be used for both the attributive and terminal grammatical roles, realigning the conjugations.

Alternative formsEdit



する (transitive, irregular conjugation, rōmaji suru)

  1. to do
    Nani o shite imasu ka.
    What are you doing?
  2. to wear (accessories)
    Nekutai o suru.
    I wear a necktie.
  3. () to make into a certain state; to cause to become
    一人 (ひとり)にしないで
    hitori ni shinaide
    please don't leave me to be alone by myself
     () () () (れい)にする
    heya o kirei ni suru
    to clean up one's room
  4. () to have; to make
     (こわ) ()つきをする
    kowai metsuki o suru
    to have an intimidating glare
  5. (humble) In the form of "  ()/ () + verbal noun + する ", a humble form of the verb.
    Antonym: 成る
    Synonym: 致す
     (とど)ける (todokeru, to deliver) -  (とど)けする (o todoke suru, to deliver, humble)
     (とも) (tomo, company) -  (とも)します (o tomo shimasu, to accompany, humble)
    案内 (あんない)する (annai suru, to guide) - 案内 (あんない)します (go annai shimasu, to guide, humble)
Usage notesEdit

The verb する (“to do”) is seldom written in kanji (為る).

It is common to use する after certain nouns to indicate that the noun is being done; this is highly productive, meaning many nouns can be used as verbs in this way. Some examples are:

  • 勉強 (benkyō, studying)勉強する (benkyō suru, “to do studying” → “to study”)
  • 旅行 (ryokō, journey)旅行する (ryokō suru, “to do journey” → “to travel”)
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Reading for various kanji spellings.


する (rōmaji suru)

Various verbs deriving from senses similar to “to slide” or “to rub”:

  1. 刷る, 摺る: to print something (from the way the paper would be placed on the printing block and rubbed)
  2. 掏る: to pick someone's pocket (possibly from the way a pickpocket must slide along unnoticed;[1] compare English slick)
  3. 擦る, 摩る, 磨る, 擂る: to slide, to rub, to chafe, to strike (as in a match, by rubbing); to lose or waste money
  4. 剃る: irregular reading for 剃る (soru, to shave)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN