See also: ずる



Etymology 1Edit

From Old Japanese root verb (su, to do).[1][2]

As with all verbs, during the Middle Japanese stage in the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the 終止形(shūshikei, terminal or sentence-ending form) was gradually lost as the 連体形(rentaikei, attributive form) came to be used for both the attributive and terminal grammatical roles, realigning the conjugations.


Alternative formsEdit


する ‎(transitive, irregular conjugation, romaji suru)

  1. to do
    Nani o shite imasu ka.
    What are you doing?
  2. to wear (accessories)
    Nekutai o suru.
    I wear a necktie.
Usage notesEdit

The verb する (“to do”) is seldom written in kanji (為る).

It is common to use する after certain nouns to indicate that the noun is being done; this is highly productive, meaning many nouns can be used as verbs in this way. Some examples are:

  • 勉強(benkyō, studying)勉強する (benkyō suru, “to do studying” → “to study”)
  • 旅行(ryokō, journey)旅行する (ryokō suru, “to do journey” → “to travel”)
  • (to do): 成す, 為す (なす, ​nasu) (somewhat archaic, usage is more limited)
  • (to do): 行う (おこなう, ​okonau) (to carry out)
  • (used to make a verb): 〜る(-ru), a much less productive suffix for turning a noun into a verb
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Reading for various kanji spellings.


する ‎(romaji suru)

Various verbs deriving from senses similar to “to slide” or “to rub”:

  1. 刷る, 摺る: to print something (from the way the paper would be placed on the printing block and rubbed)
  2. 掏る: to pick someone's pocket (possibly from the way a pickpocket must slide along unnoticed;[1] compare English slick)
  3. 擦る, 摩る, 磨る, 擂る: to slide, to rub, to chafe, to strike (as in a match, by rubbing); to lose or waste money
  4. 剃る: irregular reading for 剃る(soru, to shave)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3