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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai TO.png
U+3068, と



Stroke order


Etymology 1Edit

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.


(romaji to)

  1. The hiragana syllable (to). Its equivalent in katakana is (to). It is the twentieth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō o-dan, row ta, section o).
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

⟨to2 → */tə//to/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tə.


(rōmaji to)

  1. with
     (ぼく) ()たい?
    Boku to ikitai?
    Do you want to go with me?
    あなた一緒 (いっしょ) ()ます。
    Anata to issho ni ikimasu.
    I will go with you.
  2. (when between nouns) and (In this sense, "と" can be reduplicated)
    彼女 (かのじょ)英語 (えいご)フランス ()(と)が (はな)る。
    Kanojo wa eigo to furansugo (to) ga hanaseru.
    She can speak English and French.
    Sore to kore.
    That and this.
     (いぬ) (ねこ)(と)を ( わたし ) ( か)っている。
    Inuto neko (to) o watashi wa katteiru.
    I keep the dog and cat.
  3. used as a quotation
     (ねが)!」彼女 (かのじょ) ()った。
    “Onegai!” to, kanojo wa itta.
    "Please!", she said.
    Nan da to!?
    彼女 (かのじょ)たちは「うん、うん」うなずいた。
    Kanojo-tachi wa “un, un” to unazuita.
    They nodded, "yes, yes."
    なるほど、なるほど」うなずきながらメモ ()ていた。
    “Naruhodo, naruhodo” to unazukinagara memo o totteita.
    [They] took memos while nodding, "I see, I see."
  4. if (when appended to a dictionary-form verb and followed by a present-tense sentence)
    勉強 (べんきょう)する ()かる
    Benkyō suru to wakaru.
    If you study, you'll understand.
    円高 (えんだか) (すす)日本 (にほん)経済 (けいざい)混乱 (こんらん)する。
    Endaka ga susumu to, nihon keizai ga konran suru.
    If the high yen continues, the Japanese economy will be in dire straits.
     () (さん) ()ける (ろく)なる
    Ni to san o kakeru to roku ni naru.
    If you multiply two and three, they make six.
  5. when (when appended to a dictionary form verb and followed by a past-tense sentence)
    マンハッタン ()大学 (だいがく)友達 (ともだち) ()た。
    Manhattan e iku to, daigaku no tomodachi ni atta.
    When I went to Manhattan, I met a friend from university.
Usage notesEdit
  • (to) in the sense of "and" can only be used to conjoin nouns; not verbs or sentences. They are joined by conjugation.
  • (to) in the sense of "and" implies that the list is complete. In the above sentence, the subject only speaks English and French. To imply other items, the particles とか (toka) or (ya) are used in lieu of (to). The particle など (nado, etc., and so on) can be appended to a list of nouns conjoined by to imply that there are other items on the list.
  • (to) in the sense of "if" can be interchangeable with the conditional particles (ba) and たら (tara)/なら (nara) if the conditionals describe a hypothetical effect of an action.
  • When (to) is used in the meaning "when" it implies that something happened abruptly. See とき (toki).
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit


(rōmaji to)

  1. Short for と金 (tokin): a promoted 歩兵 (fuhyō, pawn) that moves like a 金将 (kinshō, gold general)