English edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin dolus (deceit, trickery); akin to Ancient Greek δόλος (dólos, bait, ruse). Compare dolose, dolosity.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

dolus (countable and uncountable, plural doli)

  1. (law) Evil intent: malice or fraud.
    • 1849, James G. Butler, A Summary of the Roman Civil Law:
      Every actual delict presupposes a dolus or culpa, with the concomitant consciousness and prepense

Related terms edit

References edit

Anagrams edit

Latin edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Indo-European *dolh₁os. Cognates include Ancient Greek δόλος (dólos).[1]

Noun edit

dolus m (genitive dolī); second declension

  1. deception, deceit, fraud, guile, treachery, trickery
    Synonyms: dēceptiō, perfidia, fraus, maleficium, stratēgēma, ars
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 1.130:
      Nec latuēre dolī frātrem Iūnōnis et īrae.
      Nor was [her] brother [Neptune] unaware of the deceit and wrath of Juno.
  2. evil intent; malice; wrongdoing (with a view to the consequences)
  3. device, artifice, strategem, trap
Usage notes edit

The phrase dolum faciō means "to trick."

Declension edit

Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative dolus dolī
Genitive dolī dolōrum
Dative dolō dolīs
Accusative dolum dolōs
Ablative dolō dolīs
Vocative dole dolī
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 2 edit

Probably a separate and unrelated term from the above, instead deriving from doleō (to hurt, grieve) and dolor (pain).

Noun edit

dolus m (genitive dolī); second declension (Late Latin)

  1. pain, grief
Related terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Balkan Romance:
  • Italo-Romance:
  • Padanian:
  • Northern Gallo-Romance:
  • Southern Gallo-Romance:
  • Ibero-Romance:
    • Old Galician-Portuguese: doo
    • Spanish: duelo

References edit

  • dolus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • dolus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • dolus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • by craft: per dolum (B. G. 4. 13)
    • by the aid of fraud and lies: dolis et fallaciis (Sall. Cat. 11. 2)
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 177

Middle Irish edit

Etymology edit

do- +‎ lés (compare solus, from Old Irish solus).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit


  1. lightless, obscure

Descendants edit

Mutation edit

Middle Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
dolus dolus
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/, later /ɣ(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit