See also: nay, Nay, NAY, näy, nạy, nãy, nậy, nảy, nấy, nầy, nẩy, ñay, ŋay, and n'ay

Vietnamese

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-Vietic *-niː, from Proto-Mon-Khmer *niʔ ~ *nih (this); cognate with Khmer នេះ (nih, this), Pacoh nâh (this), Khasi kane/une (this) and Car Nicobarese (these things). See also nay (now) and Central Vietnamese ni (this).

Part of the n-series of demonstratives, along with nấy, nớ, nọ, .

Pronunciation

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Determiner

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này (, )

  1. this
    Cái thằng dở hơi này!
    You butthead!

See also

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Vietnamese demonstratives
Laurence Thompson (1965), Vietnamese Grammar
Unspecified Close to the
speaker or
newly introduced
Remote,
already identified
PLACE
đ- (first register)
đâu
‘wherever’
đây
‘here’
đấy
‘there’
REFERENCE
n- (second register)
nào
‘whichever’
này
‘this’
nọ
‘that’
PROPORTION
b- (first register)
bao
‘to whatever extent’
bây
‘to this extent’
bấy
‘to that extent’
MANNER
s- (first register)
v- (second register)
sao
‘however’
vầy
‘this way’
vậy
‘that way’
Nguyễn Phú Phong (1992), “Vietnamese Demonstratives Revisited”
D
(Indefinite)
D1
(Proximal)
D2
(Medial)
D3
(Distal)
+NOM(inal) đâu
place-what
đây
place-this
đấy
place-that1
±NOM(inal) đó
(place-)that1
kia
(place-)that2
–NOM(inal) nào
what
nầy
this
nấy/ấy
that1
nọ
that2
Vietnamese demonstratives (alternative version)
Proximal
(*-iː)
Distal 1
(*-iːʔ)
Distal 2
(*-əːʔ)
Distal 3/
Remote
(*-ɔːʔ)
Interrogative
(rime was a rounded
back vowel)
Place, attributive1
n-
ni

này
nấy nớ nọ nào
Place, nominal2
đ-
đây đí
đấy
đó đâu
Manner
r-
ri
rày
rứa ru
sao3
Extent 14
b-
bây bấy bao
Extent 25
v-
vầy vậy
1 Originally can only follow a nominal (being used attributively), hence nơi này (this place; here), nơi nào (where) (no longer completely true in the modern language).
2 Can be used on its own/is itself nominal, hence đây (here), đâu (where).
3 From earlier *C-raːw (where *C is nonspecific consonant).
4 Placed before the head: bây nhiêu (this much), bấy nhiêu (that much), bao nhiêu (how much).
5 Placed after the head: nhanh vầy (this fast), nhanh vậy (that fast/so fast).


Adverb

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này (, )

  1. here
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  • nay (now)

Particle

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này (, )

  1. prefixes someone's name or kinship title, used to call for their attention
    Này ai ơi!Hey there!
    này Lanhey Lan
  2. suffixes someone's name or kinship title, usually functions both as a focus marker and signaling a question
    Synonym:
    Khoa này, nghe nói em sắp chuyển nhà hả?
    Is it true that you are about to move out, Khoa?

Usage notes

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  • Its usage as a vocative marker similar to English o or hey seems to restrict to the literary register and translation.
  • Also used in insults similarly to Japanese この (kono).