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SwahiliEdit

EtymologyEdit

From -puma.

VerbEdit

-pumua (infinitive kupumua)

  1. to breathe
  2. to rest

ConjugationEdit

Conjugation of -pumua
Non-finite forms
Form Positive Negative
Infinitive kupumua kutopumua
Simple finite forms
Positive form Singular Plural
Imperative pumua pumueni
Habitual hupumua
Complex finite forms
Polarity Persons Persons / Classes Classes
1st 2nd 3rd / M-wa M-mi Ma Ki-vi N U Ku Pa Mu
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. / 1 Pl. / 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 / 14 15 / 17 16 18
Past
Positive nilipumua
nalipumua
tulipumua
twalipumua
ulipumua
walipumua
mlipumua
mwalipumua
alipumua walipumua ulipumua ilipumua lilipumua yalipumua kilipumua vilipumua ilipumua zilipumua ulipumua kulipumua palipumua mulipumua
Relative niliopumua
naliopumua
tuliopumua
twaliopumua
uliopumua
waliopumua
mliopumua
mwaliopumua
aliopumua waliopumua uliopumua iliopumua liliopumua yaliopumua kiliopumua viliopumua iliopumua ziliopumua uliopumua kuliopumua paliopumua muliopumua
Negative sikupumua hatukupumua hukupumua hamkupumua hakupumua hawakupumua haukupumua haikupumua halikupumua hayakupumua hakikupumua havikupumua haikupumua hazikupumua haukupumua hakukupumua hapakupumua hamukupumua
Present
Positive ninapumua
napumua
tunapumua unapumua mnapumua anapumua wanapumua unapumua inapumua linapumua yanapumua kinapumua vinapumua inapumua zinapumua unapumua kunapumua panapumua munapumua
Relative ninaopumua
naopumua
tunaopumua unaopumua mnaopumua anaopumua wanaopumua unaopumua inaopumua linaopumua yanaopumua kinaopumua vinaopumua inaopumua zinaopumua unaopumua kunaopumua panaopumua munaopumua
Negative sipumui hatupumui hupumui hampumui hapumui hawapumui haupumui haipumui halipumui hayapumui hakipumui havipumui haipumui hazipumui haupumui hakupumui hapapumui hamupumui
Future
Positive nitapumua tutapumua utapumua mtapumua atapumua watapumua utapumua itapumua litapumua yatapumua kitapumua vitapumua itapumua zitapumua utapumua kutapumua patapumua mutapumua
Relative nitakaopumua tutakaopumua utakaopumua mtakaopumua atakaopumua watakaopumua utakaopumua itakaopumua litakaopumua yatakaopumua kitakaopumua vitakaopumua itakaopumua zitakaopumua utakaopumua kutakaopumua patakaopumua mutakaopumua
Negative sitapumua hatutapumua hutapumua hamtapumua hatapumua hawatapumua hautapumua haitapumua halitapumua hayatapumua hakitapumua havitapumua haitapumua hazitapumua hautapumua hakutapumua hapatapumua hamutapumua
Subjunctive
Positive nipumue tupumue upumue mpumue apumue wapumue upumue ipumue lipumue yapumue kipumue vipumue ipumue zipumue upumue kupumue papumue mupumue
Negative nisipumue tusipumue usipumue msipumue asipumue wasipumue usipumue isipumue lisipumue yasipumue kisipumue visipumue isipumue zisipumue usipumue kusipumue pasipumue musipumue
Present Conditional
Positive ningepumua tungepumua ungepumua mngepumua angepumua wangepumua ungepumua ingepumua lingepumua yangepumua kingepumua vingepumua ingepumua zingepumua ungepumua kungepumua pangepumua mungepumua
Negative nisingepumua
singepumua
tusingepumua
hatungepumua
usingepumua
hungepumua
msingepumua
hamngepumua
asingepumua
hangepumua
wasingepumua
hawangepumua
usingepumua
haungepumua
isingepumua
haingepumua
lisingepumua
halingepumua
yasingepumua
hayangepumua
kisingepumua
hakingepumua
visingepumua
havingepumua
isingepumua
haingepumua
zisingepumua
hazingepumua
usingepumua
haungepumua
kusingepumua
hakungepumua
pasingepumua
hapangepumua
musingepumua
hamungepumua
Past Conditional
Positive ningalipumua tungalipumua ungalipumua mngalipumua angalipumua wangalipumua ungalipumua ingalipumua lingalipumua yangalipumua kingalipumua vingalipumua ingalipumua zingalipumua ungalipumua kungalipumua pangalipumua mungalipumua
Negative nisingalipumua
singalipumua
tusingalipumua
hatungalipumua
usingalipumua
hungalipumua
msingalipumua
hamngalipumua
asingalipumua
hangalipumua
wasingalipumua
hawangalipumua
usingalipumua
haungalipumua
isingalipumua
haingalipumua
lisingalipumua
halingalipumua
yasingalipumua
hayangalipumua
kisingalipumua
hakingalipumua
visingalipumua
havingalipumua
isingalipumua
haingalipumua
zisingalipumua
hazingalipumua
usingalipumua
haungalipumua
kusingalipumua
hakungalipumua
pasingalipumua
hapangalipumua
musingalipumua
hamungalipumua
Conditional Contrary to Fact
Positive ningelipumua tungelipumua ungelipumua mngelipumua angelipumua wangelipumua ungelipumua ingelipumua lingelipumua yangelipumua kingelipumua vingelipumua ingelipumua zingelipumua ungelipumua kungelipumua pangelipumua mungelipumua
General Relative
Positive nipumuao tupumuao upumuao mpumuao apumuao wapumuao upumuao ipumuao lipumuao yapumuao kipumuao vipumuao ipumuao zipumuao upumuao kupumuao papumuao mupumuao
Negative nisiopumua tusiopumua usiopumua msiopumua asiopumua wasiopumua usiopumua isiopumua lisiopumua yasiopumua kisiopumua visiopumua isiopumua zisiopumua usiopumua kusiopumua pasiopumua musiopumua
Gnomic
Positive napumua twapumua wapumua mwapumua apumua wapumua wapumua yapumua lapumua yapumua chapumua vyapumua yapumua zapumua wapumua kwapumua papumua mwapumua
Perfect
Positive nimepumua tumepumua umepumua mmepumua amepumua wamepumua umepumua imepumua limepumua yamepumua kimepumua vimepumua imepumua zimepumua umepumua kumepumua pamepumua mumepumua
"Already"
Positive nimeshapumua tumeshapumua umeshapumua mmeshapumua ameshapumua wameshapumua umeshapumua imeshapumua limeshapumua yameshapumua kimeshapumua vimeshapumua imeshapumua zimeshapumua umeshapumua kumeshapumua pameshapumua mumeshapumua
"Not yet"
Negative sijapumua hatujapumua hujapumua hamjapumua hajapumua hawajapumua haujapumua haijapumua halijapumua hayajapumua hakijapumua havijapumua haijapumua hazijapumua haujapumua hakujapumua hapajapumua hamujapumua
"If/When"
Positive nikipumua tukipumua ukipumua mkipumua akipumua wakipumua ukipumua ikipumua likipumua yakipumua kikipumua vikipumua ikipumua zikipumua ukipumua kukipumua pakipumua mukipumua
"If not"
Negative nisipopumua tusipopumua usipopumua msipopumua asipopumua wasipopumua usipopumua isipopumua lisipopumua yasipopumua kisipopumua visipopumua isipopumua zisipopumua usipopumua kusipopumua pasipopumua musipopumua
Consecutive
Positive nikapumua tukapumua ukapumua mkapumua akapumua wakapumua ukapumua ikapumua likapumua yakapumua kikapumua vikapumua ikapumua zikapumua ukapumua kukapumua pakapumua mukapumua
Not all possible forms are listed in the table. Transitive verbs can take object concords, relative concords can agree with all noun classes, and many other forms not commonly seen in modern Standard Swahili are absent from the table. See Appendix:Swahili verbs for more information.