Azerbaijani

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Other scripts
Cyrillic на-
Abjad ناـ

Etymology

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Borrowed from Persian ناـ (nâ-).

Pronunciation

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IPA(key): [nɑ]

Prefix

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na- (rarely productive)

  1. un-, non-, in-
    Synonym: qeyri-
    na- + ‎tamam (complete) → ‎natamam (incomplete)
  2. -less
    Synonym: -siz
    na- + ‎ümid (hope) → ‎naümid (hopeless)

Derived terms

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Big Nambas

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-Oceanic *na

Article

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na-

  1. The noun article. Added to nouns and verb stems to affirm nominal use. Has an element of definiteness. Also used in derivation.

Derived terms

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References

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Chichewa

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Pronunciation

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Prefix

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ná-

  1. Prefixed to a traditional Chewa clan name to denote a woman belonging to that clan.

Curripaco

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Prefix

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na-

  1. third person plural agent marker

References

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  • Swintha Danielsen, Tania Granadillo, Agreement in two Arawak languages, in The Typology of Semantic Alignment (edited by Mark Donohue, Søren Wichmann) (2008, →ISBN, page 398

Czech

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Etymology

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From na.

Prefix

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na-

  1. a prefix, often used where English would use a phrasal verb with on
  2. (as an imperfective verb) (often used with se) intensification: added to mean a lot
    na- + ‎představovat se (present onself) → ‎napředstavovat se (present oneself many times)

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • na- in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Dutch

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Etymology

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Derived from the preposition na

Pronunciation

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  • Audio:(file)

Prefix

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na-

  1. after

Antonyms

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voor-

Derived terms

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Gunwinggu

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Pronunciation

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Prefix

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na-

  1. male prefix added onto human words.
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References

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  • Steven and Narelle Etherington, Kunwinjku Kunwok: A Short Introduction to Kunwinjku Language and Society (third edition, 1998)

Ilocano

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Prefix

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na- (Kur-itan spelling )

  1. forms adjectives indicating a quality
    na- + ‎dalus (cleanliness) → ‎nadalus (clean)

Derived terms

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Kambera

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Pronoun

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na-

  1. third person singular nominative proclitic

See also

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Makasar

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Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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na- (nominative proclitic, Lontara spelling )

  1. he, she, it, they (third person singular and plural)

See also

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Mwotlap

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Etymology

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From Proto-Torres-Banks *na, from Proto-Oceanic *na (noun article)

Article

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na-

  1. a, the (singular article for common nouns)

Morphophonology

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  • When followed by a noun starting with a vowel, the vowel of na- is elided:
na- +‎ ēm̄nēm̄ (house)
  • When followed by a noun starting with a single consonant, na- normally changes its vowel to a clone of the vowel in the next syllable:
na- +‎ (water)
na- +‎ vinhenivinhe (bamboo)
  • When followed by a noun starting with two underlying consonants, na- normally remains unchanged:
na- +‎ l(ō)qōvēnnalqōvēn (woman)

Semantics

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nalqōvēn (a woman)
— opp. yoge lōqōvēn (two women), tēlge lōqōvēn (three women), ige lōqōvēn (women).
  • For [-human] referents, the number value of the article is unspecified.
(water)
nēm̄ (a house, houses; the house, the houses)

References

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Old Polish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *na-.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /na(ː)/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /na/, /nɒ/

Prefix

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na-

  1. added to verbs to make them perfective
    na- + ‎pisać → ‎napisać
  2. added to verbs to mean onto
    na- + ‎łożyć → ‎nałożyć
  3. added to verbs to with various meanings
    na- + ‎mówić → ‎namówić

Derived terms

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Polish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish na-. Doublet of ana-.

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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na-

  1. added to verbs to make them perfective
    na- + ‎pisać → ‎napisać
  2. added to verbs to mean onto
    na- + ‎łożyć → ‎nałożyć
  3. added to verbs to with various meanings
    na- + ‎mówić → ‎namówić

Derived terms

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Slovene

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *na-. Prefixed form of the preposition na.

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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na-

  1. Forms perfective verbs with the following meanings:
    1. (no change in meaning)
      na- + ‎pisáti (to write) → ‎napisáti (to write)
    2. onto, into
      na- + ‎líti (to pour) → ‎nalíti (to pour in)
    3. a little, to begin to
      na- + ‎krivīti (to bend) → ‎nakrivīti (to bend a little)
      na- + ‎gníti (to rot) → ‎nagníti (to begin to rot)
    4. enough of, a sufficient amount of
      na- + ‎cepīti (to chop) → ‎nacepīti (to chop enough of)
    5. (reflexive) excessively, thoroughly
      na- + ‎píti (to drink) → ‎napíti (to drink one's fill, get drunk)

Derived terms

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Swahili

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Prefix

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na-

  1. Contraction of ni- + -a-.
  2. Contraction of ni- + -na-.
    Synonym: nina-

Tagalog

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Pronunciation

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Prefix

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na- (Baybayin spelling )

  1. used to form complete aspects of verbs prefixed with ma-

Prefix

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ná- (Baybayin spelling )

  1. (dialectal) used to form progressive aspects of verbs prefixed with um- or infixed with -um-

Usage notes

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  • The dialectal prefix, when written, is generally a source of confusion and mockery for the majority of Tagalog speakers, but the two actually differ by pronunciation. The na-, where it indicates a perfective aspect, is pronounced without stress, while the na- prefix, where it indicates a progressive aspect in some dialects, is pronounced with stress.
    Nakain siya ng isda.
    He/She happened to be eaten by the fish.
    kain siya ng isda.
    He/She is eating fish.

Derived terms

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See also

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Ternate

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Pronoun

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na-

  1. first-person plural inclusive possessive prefix, our
    Synonym: nga-
  2. second-person plural possessive prefix, your
    Synonym: nia-
  3. (human) third-person plural possessive prefix, their
    Synonym: nga-

See also

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References

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  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Turkish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Ottoman Turkish ناـ (nâ-), from Persian ناـ (nâ-).

Prefix

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na- (rarely productive)

  1. un-, non-, in-
    Synonym: gayri-
    na- + ‎tamam (complete) → ‎natamam (incomplete)
  2. -less
    Synonym: -siz
    na- + ‎ümit (hope) → ‎naümit (hopeless)

Derived terms

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West Makian

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Etymology 1

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Cognate with Ternate na- (our).

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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na-

  1. first-person plural inclusive possessive prefix, our
Usage notes
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The possessive prefix na- is subject to West Makian vowel harmony, and as such may surface as ne-, ni-, or no-.

Alternative forms
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See also

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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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na-

  1. second-person singular clitic, you
    nocoyou see
Usage notes
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The prefix na- follows West Makian vowel harmony, and as such may surface as ne-, ni-, no-, or nu-.

Alternative forms
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References

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  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[1], Pacific linguistics

Xhosa

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Preposition

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na-

  1. with, in company of
  2. (with subject concord) to have

Conjunction

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na-

  1. and (joining individual words)

Zulu

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Pronunciation

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Preposition

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na-

  1. with, in company of
  2. (with subject concord) to have

Usage notes

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The meaning "have" can be analysed more literally as "to be with". In the negative, a- is prefixed to the subject concord, and the initial vowel of the noun prefix is dropped:

  • Nginekati.I have a cat.
  • Anginakati.I don't have a cat.

Conjunction

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na-

  1. and (joining individual words)
    Synonym: futhi
  2. also, too
    Synonym: futhi
  3. even (implying an extreme example)

References

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