- Form used before a root beginning with the letter l of in-
Normally this prefix will combine with the root to make a word that uses the ela geminada. For example, il- and legal combine to form il·legal. but for some words, the use of the ela palatal will provide an alternate form or the preferred form. Thus il- and legible can combine to form either illegible or il·legible, while il- and letrat (“literate”) combine only as illetrat (“illiterate”) in Standard Catalan, although il·letrat is a common, but still illiterate, misspelling.
il- (Lenites except with d, s, t)
- multiple, poly-, multi-
- Alternative form of
|Radical||Eclipsis||with h-prothesis||with t-prothesis|
|Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.|
- "il-" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
- Entries containing “il-” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
- Entries containing “il-” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.
Assimilated form of in-, before l-.
- Alternative form of
- l-, iċ-, id-, in-, ir-, is-, it-, ix-, iz-, iż-, ċ-, d-, n-, r-, s-, t-, x-, z-, ż- (see usage notes)
il- m or f
- The article (in all forms) connects to the following word with a hyphen:
- Before an initial vowel, including before the vocalic letters għ and h, the i of the article is always dropped. This does not happen before q [ʔ], however:
- Before an initial consonant cluster beginning with a nasal or liquid, i.e. the letters l, m, n, r + another consonant, an i is prefixed to the word and the article thus becomes l-:
- The same also usually happens before an initial s, x, ż + an obstruent, i.e. a consonant other than j, l, m, n, r, w. This rule is somewhat similar to the Italian impure s, but it is applied with variation:
- Otherwise, before coronal consonants except ġ, the l of the article is generally assimilated. This means that before the letters ċ, d, n, r, s, t, x, z, ż, the article will have the according forms iċ-, id-, in-, ir-, is-, it-, ix-, iz-, iż-:
- Apart from ġ and the cases where an i is prefixed, there is another exception to this assimilation, namely that ad-hoc nominalisations of particles and the like are usually not assimilated:
- In the context of a sentence, the i of the article is not only dropped when the following word begins with a vowel, but also when the preceding word ends with a vowel:
- Rajna l-mara. ― We saw the woman.
- Hence, even the assimilated forms of the article can be reduced to ċ-, d-, n-, r-, s-, t-, x-, z-, ż-:
- Rajna x-xemx. ― We saw the sun.
- In the same case, the article is spelt as one word with the prepositions bi (“with, by”), fi (“in”), lil (“for”), minn (“from”), ma' (“along with”), and ta' (“of”):
- fil-ġnien (“in the garden”) ; mal-mara (“with the woman”) ; tax-xemx (“of the sun”).
- However, if the article already has the form l-, the prepositions ma' and ta' do not contract:
- fl-iskola (“in school”) ; but: ma' l-iben (“with the son”), ta' l-għasfur (“of the bird”) — though the spellings mal-iben, tal-għasfur are frequently seen.