EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin il-, assimilated form of in- before l-.

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. not; a form of the prefix in-, used before l

AnagramsEdit


CatalanEdit

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Form used before a root beginning with the letter l of in-

Usage notesEdit

Normally this prefix will combine with the root to make a word that uses the ela geminada. For example, il- and legal combine to form il·legal. but for some words, the use of the ela palatal will provide an alternate form or the preferred form. Thus il- and legible can combine to form either illegible or il·legible, while il- and letrat (literate) combine only as illetrat (illiterate) in Standard Catalan, although il·letrat is a common, but still illiterate, misspelling.

Derived termsEdit

Category Catalan words prefixed with il- not found

ChoctawEdit

PrefixEdit

il- (before consonants ī-, class I first-person plural)

  1. the subject of an active transitive verb
    we
  2. the subject of an intransitive active verb
    we

InflectionEdit


IrishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Irish il (much, many), from Proto-Indo-European *pelh₁- (compare Ancient Greek πολύς (polús, much)).

PrefixEdit

il- (Lenites except with d, s, t)

  1. multiple, poly-, multi-
  2. miscellaneous
    Synonyms: ilghnéitheach, ilchineálach, éagsúil
  3. sundry
  4. composite
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Alternative form of oll- (great, gross)

MutationEdit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
il- n-il- hil- t-il-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further readingEdit

  • "il-" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “il-” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “il-” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

ItalianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Assimilated form of in-, before l-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Alternative form of in-

AnagramsEdit


LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

Assimilated form of in-, before l-.

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Alternative form of in-

MalteseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic اَل(al-).

PronunciationEdit

ArticleEdit

il- m or f

  1. the

Usage notesEdit

  • The article (in all forms) connects to the following word with a hyphen:
    il- + ‎mara → ‎il-mara (the woman) ; ‎il- + ‎futur → ‎il-futur (the future).
  • Before an initial vowel, including before the vocalic letters and h, the i of the article is always dropped. This does not happen before q [ʔ], however:
    il- + ‎iben → ‎l-iben (the son) ; ‎il- + ‎għasfur → ‎l-għasfur (the bird) ; but: ‎il- + ‎qalb → ‎il-qalb (the heart).
  • Before an initial consonant cluster beginning with a nasal or liquid, i.e. the letters l, m, n, r + another consonant, an i is prefixed to the word and the article thus becomes l-:
    il- + ‎rmied → ‎l-irmied (the ashes) ; ‎il- + ‎lsien → ‎l-ilsien (the language).
  • The same also usually happens before an initial s, x, ż + an obstruent, i.e. a consonant other than j, l, m, n, r, w. This rule is somewhat similar to the Italian impure s, but it is applied with variation:
    il- + ‎skola → ‎l-iskola (the school) ; ‎il- + ‎xkupilja → ‎l-ixkupilja (the brush) — less often also: is-skola, ix-xkupilja.
  • Otherwise, before coronal consonants except ġ, the l of the article is generally assimilated. This means that before the letters ċ, d, n, r, s, t, x, z, ż, the article will have the according forms iċ-, id-, in-, ir-, is-, it-, ix-, iz-, iż-:
    il- + ‎dawl → ‎id-dawl (the light) ; ‎il- + ‎xemx → ‎ix-xemx (the sun) ; but: ‎il- + ‎ġnien → ‎il-ġnien (the garden).
  • Apart from ġ and the cases where an i is prefixed, there is another exception to this assimilation, namely that ad-hoc nominalisations of particles and the like are usually not assimilated:
    il- + ‎xiex → ‎il-xiex (the what) ; ‎il- + ‎dejjem → ‎il-dejjem (the always, the forever).
  • In the context of a sentence, the i of the article is not only dropped when the following word begins with a vowel, but also when the preceding word ends with a vowel:
    Rajna l-mara.We saw the woman.
  • Hence, even the assimilated forms of the article can be reduced to ċ-, d-, n-, r-, s-, t-, x-, z-, ż-:
    Rajna x-xemx.We saw the sun.
  • In the same case, the article is spelt as one word with the prepositions bi (with, by), fi (in), lil (for), minn (from), ma' (along with), and ta' (of):
    fil-ġnien (in the garden) ; mal-mara (with the woman) ; tax-xemx (of the sun).
  • However, if the article already has the form l-, the prepositions ma' and ta' do not contract:
    fl-iskola (in school) ; but: ma' l-iben (with the son), ta' l-għasfur (of the bird) — though the spellings mal-iben, tal-għasfur are frequently seen.