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EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin il-, assimilated form of in- before l-.

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. not; a form of the prefix in-, used before l

AnagramsEdit


CatalanEdit

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Form used before a root beginning with the letter l of in-

Usage notesEdit

Normally this prefix will combine with the root to make a word that uses the ela geminada. For example, il- and legal combine to form il·legal. but for some words, the use of the ela palatal will provide an alternate form or the preferred form. Thus il- and legible can combine to form either illegible or il·legible, while il- and letrat (literate) combine only as illetrat (illiterate) in Standard Catalan, although il·letrat is a common, but still illiterate, misspelling.

Derived termsEdit

Category Catalan words prefixed with il- not found

IrishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Irish il (much, many), from Proto-Indo-European *pelh₁- (compare Ancient Greek πολύς (polús, much)).

PrefixEdit

il- (Lenites except with d, s, t)

  1. multiple, poly-, multi-
  2. miscellaneous
    Synonyms: ilghnéitheach, ilchineálach, éagsúil
  3. sundry
  4. composite
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Alternative form of oll- (great, gross)

MutationEdit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
il- n-il- hil- t-il-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further readingEdit

  • "il-" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “il-” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “il-” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

ItalianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Assimilated form of in-, before l-.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Alternative form of in-

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

Assimilated form of in-, before l-.

PrefixEdit

il-

  1. Alternative form of in-

MalteseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic اَل(al-).

PronunciationEdit

ArticleEdit

il- m or f

  1. the

Usage notesEdit

  • The article (in all forms) connects to the following word with a hyphen:
    il- + ‎mara → ‎il-mara (the woman) ; ‎il- + ‎futur → ‎il-futur (the future).
  • Before an initial vowel, including before the vocalic letters and h, the i of the article is always dropped. This does not happen before q [ʔ], however:
    il- + ‎iben → ‎l-iben (the son) ; ‎il- + ‎għasfur → ‎l-għasfur (the bird) ; but: ‎il- + ‎qalb → ‎il-qalb (the heart).
  • Before an initial consonant cluster beginning with a nasal or liquid, i.e. the letters l, m, n, r + another consonant, an i is prefixed to the word and the article thus becomes l-:
    il- + ‎rmied → ‎l-irmied (the ashes) ; ‎il- + ‎lsien → ‎l-ilsien (the language).
  • The same also usually happens before an initial s, x, ż + an obstruent, i.e. a consonant other than j, l, m, n, r, w. This rule is somewhat similar to the Italian impure s, but it is applied with variation:
    il- + ‎skola → ‎l-iskola (the school) ; ‎il- + ‎xkupilja → ‎l-ixkupilja (the brush) — less often also: is-skola, ix-xkupilja.
  • Otherwise, before coronal consonants except ġ, the l of the article is generally assimilated. This means that before the letters ċ, d, n, r, s, t, x, z, ż, the article will have the according forms iċ-, id-, in-, ir-, is-, it-, ix-, iz-, iż-:
    il- + ‎dawl → ‎id-dawl (the light) ; ‎il- + ‎xemx → ‎ix-xemx (the sun) ; but: ‎il- + ‎ġnien → ‎il-ġnien (the garden).
  • Apart from ġ and the cases where an i is prefixed, there is another exception to this assimilation, namely that ad-hoc nominalisations of particles and the like are usually not assimilated:
    il- + ‎xiex → ‎il-xiex (the what) ; ‎il- + ‎dejjem → ‎il-dejjem (the always, the forever).
  • In the context of a sentence, the i of the article is not only dropped when the following word begins with a vowel, but also when the preceding word ends with a vowel:
    Rajna l-mara.We saw the woman.
  • Hence, even the assimilated forms of the article can be reduced to ċ-, d-, n-, r-, s-, t-, x-, z-, ż-:
    Rajna x-xemx.We saw the sun.
  • In the same case, the article is spelt as one word with the prepositions bi (with, by), fi (in), lil (for), minn (from), ma' (along with), and ta' (of):
    fil-ġnien (in the garden) ; mal-mara (with the woman) ; tax-xemx (of the sun).
  • However, if the article already has the form l-, the prepositions ma' and ta' do not contract:
    fl-iskola (in school) ; but: ma' l-iben (with the son), ta' l-għasfur (of the bird) — though the spellings mal-iben, tal-għasfur are frequently seen.