U+553E, 唾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-553E

[U+553D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+553F]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 30, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 口竹十一 (RHJM), four-corner 62014, composition )

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 194, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3785
  • Dae Jaweon: page 414, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 641, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+553E

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *tʰoːls) : semantic + phonetic (OC *djol).

Etymology

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Sino-Tibetan; compare Tibetan ཐོ་ལེ (tho le, spit), Burmese တွေး (twe:, spittle) (Coblin, 1986; Schuessler, 2007; Hill, 2014).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (6)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter thwaH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰuɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰuɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰuɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰwaH/
Li
Rong
/tʰuɑH/
Wang
Li
/tʰuɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰuɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tuò
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
to3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tuò
Middle
Chinese
‹ thwaH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tʰˁoj-s/
English to spit (Sagart & Ma, 2020)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1661
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tʰoːls/

Definitions

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  1. saliva
      ―  tuòxiàn  ―  salivary gland
  2. to spit
  3. to spit at; to spit with contempt
  4. to vomit

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Japanese

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See also 唾する

Kanji

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(Jōyō kanji)

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
つばき
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Derived as the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of now-obsolete verb 唾吐く (tsubaku, to spit, to expectorate), itself from (tsu, saliva) + 吐く (haku, to expel from the mouth: to spit, to vomit, to exhale).[1][2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(つばき) (tsubaki

  1. spit, saliva

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
つば
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Appears to be a shortening of tsubaki above. Alternatively, may be a fusion of tsu below with particle (wa, originally pa in Old Japanese, combining in some cases as ba).[2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(つば) (tsuba

  1. spit, saliva

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

Appears to be the oldest form.[2] Possibly onomatopoeia.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (tsu

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) spit, saliva

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun (chim ta))

  1. hanja form? of (saliva)

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: thóa/thoá

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.