U+6D8E, 涎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6D8E

[U+6D8D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6D8F]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 水弓大一 (ENKM) or 水弓大女 (ENKV), four-corner 32141, composition )

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 626, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17536
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1029, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1610, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6D8E

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ljan, *lans) : semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *lan, *lans).

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Probably Sino-Tibetan; compare Chug har (phlegm), Lish hahal (phlegm), Rupa Sherdukpen nəkʰɔ̃ː (phlegm), Japhug tɯɴɢar (sputum) (Bodt, 2021). Schuessler (2007), who reconstructs the Old Chinese minimally as *(s-)lan, compares it to Tibetan ཟླན (zlan, moisture).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) relates it to Thai น้ำลาย (náam-laai), which is derived from Proto-Tai *laːjᴬ (saliva).

Possibly related to (OC *ljans, “to envy”) (Wang, 1982; also cf. Baxter and Sagart, 2014).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (17)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter zjen
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ziᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ziɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/zjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/zian/
Li
Rong
/ziɛn/
Wang
Li
/zĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/zi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xián
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cin4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xián xián
Middle
Chinese
‹ zjen › ‹ zjen ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-N-qa[r]/ /*s-N-qa[r]/
English saliva (from envy?) spittle

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 14247
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ljan/

Definitions edit

  1. saliva
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

trad.
simp. #

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yenH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/jænH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jianH/
Li
Rong
/iɛnH/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jin6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 14268
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*lans/

Adjective edit

  1. Only used in 湎涎.

Etymology 3 edit

trad.
simp. #

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 涎涎.

Etymology 4 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“saliva”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. drool, slobber, saliva

Readings edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
よだり
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(rare)

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[1][2][3]

Ultimately a compound of (yo, meaning uncertain) +‎ 垂り (tari, hanging down, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of intransitive 四段 (yodan, quadrigrade) conjugation verb 垂る (taru, to hang down)).[1] The tari changes to dari as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Superseded by the yodare reading, once the base verb 垂る (taru, to hang down) had shifted from the quadrigrade conjugation pattern to the lower bigrade pattern in the 15-1600s: see modern form 垂れる (tareru).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(よだり) (yodari

  1. [720–1600s?] (archaic) snot: nasal mucus hanging or oozing out from the nose
    Synonyms: 洟垂 (hanatare, vulgar), 鼻汁 (hanajiru)
  2. [720–1600s?] (archaic) drool, slobber: saliva hanging or oozing out from the mouth
    Synonym: (yodare, modern term)

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
よだれ
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Shift from earlier yodari reading, due to the base verb 垂る (taru, to hang down) shifting from the quadrigrade conjugation pattern to the lower bigrade pattern in the 15-1600s: see modern form 垂れる (tareru).

First attested in a dictionary from 1548.[2]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(よだれ) (yodare

  1. [from 1500s] (archaic) drool, slobber: saliva hanging or oozing out from the mouth
    Synonyms: 唾液 (daeki, saliva, formal), (tsubaki, spit, general term), (Tsugaru) びろ (biro, dialect)
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 洟・涎”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shinmura, Izuru, editor (1998) 広辞苑 [Kōjien] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  3. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉 [Digital Daijisen]‎[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months
  4. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  6. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eum (yeon))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: diên, nhiện

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit