See also: [U+56D7 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56D7], [U+30ED KATAKANA LETTER RO], and [U+3141 HANGUL LETTER MIEUM]
U+53E3, 口
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53E3

[U+53E2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53E4]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 口 (R), four-corner 60000, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #30, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №22

Usage notesEdit

This character () is used within characters. If a square is used as an enclosure around another character, then the character (U+56D7) is used instead.

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 171, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3227
  • Dae Jaweon: page 379, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 566, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+53E3

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠙵
𠮚
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象形) – resembles an open mouth.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ku(w) (mouth). Cognate with Garo ku'-sik (mouth), Tangut 𗋈 (ngu², mouth).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • khiéu - literary;
    • héu - vernacular.
  • Meixian:
    • kêu3 - literary;
    • hêu3 - vernacular.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • kāu - vernacular;
    • kēu - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kháu - vernacular;
    • káu - vernacular (limited, e.g. 啞口);
    • khó͘/khió - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰou²¹⁴/
    Harbin /kʰou²¹³/
    Tianjin /kʰou¹³/
    Jinan /kʰou⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /kʰou⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /kʰou⁵³/
    Xi'an /kʰou⁵³/
    Xining /kʰɯ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /kʰəu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /kʰou⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /kʰɤu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /kʰəu⁴²/
    Chengdu /kʰəu⁵³/
    Guiyang /kʰəu⁴²/
    Kunming /kʰəu⁵³/
    Nanjing /kʰəɯ²¹²/
    Hefei /kʰɯ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰəu⁵³/
    Pingyao /kʰəu¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰəu⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰɤ³⁵/
    Suzhou /kʰɤ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /kʰø⁵³/
    Wenzhou /kʰau³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /kʰiu³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕʰiu³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰəu⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /kʰəɯ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰiɛu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰeu³¹/
    Taoyuan /kʰeu³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐu³⁵/
    Nanning /hɐu³⁵/
    Hong Kong /hɐu³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔ⁵³/
    /kʰau⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰau³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰe²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰau⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xɔu²¹³/
    /xau²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰəuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰəuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kǒu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kǒu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰˁ(r)oʔ/
    English mouth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7490
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (anatomy) mouth (Classifier: c)
        ―  Shù shù nǐ de kǒu.  ―  Rinse your mouth out.
      出自聽來令人奇怪 [MSC, trad.]
      出自听来令人奇怪 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè huà chūzì nǐ de kǒu, tīnglái lìngrén qíguài. [Pinyin]
      This sounds strange in your mouth.
    2. entrance; opening; mouth (of an object)
        ―  kǒu  ―  entrance
        ―  chūkǒu  ―  exit
        ―  ménkǒu  ―  doorway
    3. hole; cut
        ―  kǒuzi  ―  hole
      /   ―  shāngkǒu  ―  wound
    4. port
      电脑端  ―  diànnǎoduānkǒu  ―  computer port
    5. perimeter
        ―  rénkǒu  ―  population
        ―  kǒu  ―  hukou
    6. government organ; department
    7. Classifier for family members, populations and guns.
        ―  sān kǒu zhī jiā  ―  a family of three
    8. Classifier for bites or mouthfuls.
      可以 / 可以  ―  Wǒ kěyǐ chī yī kǒu ma?  ―  Can I have a bite?
    9. (neologism, slang) to have oral sex

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ku); (こう) ()
    • Korean: (, gu)
    • Vietnamese: khẩu ()

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くつ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kutu//kut͡su/

    From Old Japanese. Appears in compound terms listed in the Wamyō Ruijushō of 938 CE.

    The ancient combining form of modern reading kuchi.[1] Likely the original form.

    No longer productive in modern Japanese. Only found in older compounds.

    There are interesting potential phonetic and semantic overlaps with Middle Chinese (MC kʰuət̚, “hole; cave”), (MC kʰəuX, “mouth; opening; hole”); Korean (gut), 굿 (gut, hole; hollow; cavity); possibly even Ainu クㇳ (kut), クッチ (kutchi, throat). One possibility is that these represent prehistoric nativized borrowings from Chinese. However, there is yet no clear evidence of relatedness.

    PronunciationEdit

    • Kun’yomi
    • The pitch accent is derived from the entire compound word.

    NounEdit

    (くつ) (kutsu

    1. mouth
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くち
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    */kutu i//kuti//kut͡ɕi/

    From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kutuy. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]

    Shift from kutu above, probably by fusion with ancient nominal particle (i). Compare the phonetic development of (kami, spirit, god) from kamu + i, (ki, tree) from ko + i, (me, eye) from ma + i.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (くち) (kuchi

    1. mouth
      • 1999 July 22, “グレード・ビル [Great Bill]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
        どんなものでも(まる)()みできる(おお)きな(くち)()っている。
        Donna mono de mo marunomi dekiru ōkina kuchi o motteiru.
        Its massive mouth can swallow whole anything whole.
    2. opening
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰəuX). The 呉音 (goon), so likely the initial borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ku

    1. (Buddhism) the mouth
    2. (Buddhism) (by extension) one's speech, one's words
    3. the mouthpiece of a flute

    CounterEdit

    () (-ku

    1. used to count people
    2. used to count per-person portions
    3. used to count open-mouthed containers
    4. used to count bladed weapons or tools

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰəuX). The 漢音 (kan'on), so likely a later borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (こう) (-kō

    1. used to count people
    2. used to count bladed weapons or tools

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3532), text here
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (ip gu))

    1. mouth

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くちー, rōmaji khuchī)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Tarama): IPA(key): [ɸɨtˢɨ], [ɸs̩.tˢɨ]
    • (Ōgami): IPA(key): [ɸkɨ], [ɸks̩ ~ ɸkɯ]

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふつ, rōmaji futsu, alternative reading ふィちィ, rōmaji fïchï)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    ReferencesEdit

    • ふィちィ【口】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • フツ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Miyako Dialect Dictionary.
    • ふつ” in Celik Kenan Thibault, Online Miyako Dictionary, 2016.

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くち, rōmaji kuchi)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • ぐち【口】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • クチ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: khẩu[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: khẩu[1][2]

    1. Hán tự form of khẩu (mouth; opening).

    ReferencesEdit


    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふつぃ, rōmaji futsï)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ってぃ, rōmaji tti)

    1. mouth
    2. language
    3. dialect
    4. speech