ChineseEdit

 
language; culture; writing
language; culture; writing; formal; literary; gentle
 
letter; symbol; character
letter; symbol; character; word
simp. and trad.
(文字)
 
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PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (15)
Final () (59) (19)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨun/ /d͡zɨH/
Pan
Wuyun
/miun/ /d͡zɨH/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuən/ /d͡zieH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mun/ /d͡zɨH/
Li
Rong
/miuən/ /d͡ziəH/
Wang
Li
/mĭuən/ /d͡zĭəH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uən/ /d͡zʱiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
man4 zi6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wén
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjun › ‹ dziH ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə[n]/ /*mə-dzə(ʔ)-s/
English ornate breed, love (v.); character

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 13015 17864
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯn/ /*zlɯs/
Notes

NounEdit

文字

  1. written symbols; writing; script; text; characters (Classifier: ; )
  2. writing style wording; language (Classifier: ; )

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (文字):
  • Japanese: (もん)() (monji)
  • Korean: 문자 (文字, munja)
  • Vietnamese: văn tự (文字)

Related termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
もん
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
goon

From Middle Chinese 文字 (MC mɨun d͡zɨH, literally “writing + character”). Compare modern Cantonese reading man4 zi6.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(もん)() (monji

  1. a letter, a character (symbol for a sound or a word)
  2. (linguistics) script, writing system
  3. (specific to Japanese) a written mora, a kana
  4. writing in general, written words
  5. (by extension from the “writing” sense) a document
  6. (by extension from the “writing” sense) reading and writing
  7. (by extension from the “writing” sense) studies
Usage notesEdit

This reading is less common than moji, below.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
もん > も
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
Irregular goon

/mond͡ʑi//mod͡ʑi/

Sound shift from monji above.[3]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

()() (moji

  1. a letter or character (symbol for a sound or a word)
  2. (linguistics) script, writing system
  3. (specific to Japanese) a written mora, a kana
  4. writing in general, written words
  5. (by extension from the “writing” sense) a document
  6. (by extension from the “writing” sense) reading and writing
  7. (by extension from the “writing” sense) studies
  8. (chiefly Kansai) the tails side of a coin, the side with writing on it
  9. (chiefly Kansai, by extension) a coin, money
Usage notesEdit

This reading is more common than monji above.

The tails and coin, money senses are specific to this moji reading.[3]

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

文字 (munja) (hangeul 문자)

  1. Hanja form? of 문자 (letter).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

文字

  1. Hán tự form of văn tự (writing system, script).