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U+7121, 無
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7121

[U+7120]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7122]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
(cursive)
 
 
The character 無 in semi-cursive script.

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 86, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 人廿火 (OTF), four-corner 80331, composition ⿱⿳𠂉)

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 673, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1081, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2211, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+7121

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • Mò̤ (Eastern Min)

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象形) . A man dancing with something long held in both hands.

This character is borrowed for “have no”, and the character () is used for the original sense.

Etymology 1 edit

Core Sino–Tibetan. From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma (no, not); cognate with Tibetan མ་ (ma, not) and Burmese (ma., not).

Cognate with:

  • (OC *mɯl, “not, no”)
  • (OC *ma, “do not”)
  • (OC *mɯd, “not, don't”)
  • (OC *mɯds, “not yet, haven't”)
  • (OC *mralʔ, “not, no”)
  • (OC *maŋ, “not have; to flee, to disappear, to die”)
  • (OC *mɯːd, “to end, to disappear, to drown”)
  • (OC *maːɡ, “none, nobody, nothing; do not; can not”)

Attested profusely in Classical Chinese, this word is the prototypical negation particle in the *m- series of Chinese negatives. In the oracle bone script, however, is not frequently used, and its homophone (or near-homophone) (OC *ma) is used instead.

See (OC *pɯ, *pɯʔ, *pɯ', “not”) for more on negative particles in Old Chinese.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • mò - colloquial;
    • vù - literary.
  • Meixian:
    • mo2 - colloquial;
    • vu2 - literary.
Note:
  • maǔ - colloquial (also written as );
  • ǔ - literary.
Note:
  • mò̤ - colloquial (also written as );
  • ù - literary.
Note:
  • bô - colloquial;
  • bû - literary.
Note:
  • bho5 - colloquial;
  • bhu5 - literary.
Note:
  • m - colloquial;
  • wu/vu - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter mju
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mɨo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mio/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mio/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /muə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /mio/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    mou4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mju › ‹ mju › ‹ mju ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ma/ /*ma/ /*mo/
    English not have volitional prefix don’t

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13117
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ma/

    Definitions edit

    1. (literary or Hakka, Min) to not have something; there is not ...
      天空天空  ―  Tiānkōng yún.  ―  There is no cloud in the sky.
      零星錢 [Hokkien, trad.]
      零星钱 [Hokkien, simp.]
      Góa lân-san-chîⁿ [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      I don't have any change.
    2. (literary or Min) Negation particle preceding verbs and adjectives. not
        ―    ―  can't
        ―  qiú yú nǐ.  ―  I want nothing from you.
    3. (literary or Min) have not
      [Hokkien, trad.]
      [Hokkien, simp.]
      Góa kā i kóng. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      I didn't tell him.
    4. (literary or Hakka, Min) Interrogative particle.
    5. (Hakka, Min) if not; otherwise (placed at the start of a sentence)
    6. (Hokkien, Teochew) Particle used after a verb to indicate that a goal has not or cannot been accomplished.
      [Hokkien]  ―  khòaⁿ- [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to not understand (when reading or viewing); to be unable to see
      只個字典 [Teochew, trad.]
      只个字典 [Teochew, simp.]
      zi2 gai7 ri7 do6 ri7 diêng2 cuê7 bho5. [Peng'im]
      You can't find this word in the dictionary.
    7. regardless of; no matter whether
    8. nothing; nil
      到有到有  ―  cóng dào yǒu  ―  start from nothing, from scratch
    9. Alternative form of (, do not)
    10. without; -less; un-
        ―  qíng  ―  heartless
        ―    ―  unreasonable
        ―  biān  ―  unlimited
    Synonyms edit
    See also edit
    • (interrogative particle) (wèi), (ma), (fǒu)

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (mu); () (bu)
    • Korean: 무(無) (mu)
    • Vietnamese: ()
  • Peranakan Indonesian: bo
  • Etymology 2 edit

    trad.
    simp.
    alternative forms

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. Only used in 南無南无 (nāmó).

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to not have; to not exist; etc.”).
    (This character is a variant form of ).

    Further reading edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. nothing
    2. nothingness
    3. none
    4. nil
    5. not

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    goon
    Alternative spelling

    From Middle Chinese (MC mju). The 呉音 (goon), so likely an earlier borrowing.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (mu

    1. nothing, nothingness
    2. (Buddhism) mu; the null set: neither yes nor no (in response to a koan or other question that mistakenly assumes an affirmative or negative answer).
    Descendants edit
    • English: mu

    Prefix edit

    () (mu-

    1. non-, un-

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (bu). The 漢音 (kan'on), so likely a later borrowing.

    Prefix edit

    () (bu-

    1. non-, un-

    References edit

    1. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Alternative forms edit

     
    Yakja (略字, simplified cursive) form of 無.

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC mju). Recorded as Middle Korean (mwu) (Yale: mwu) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 없을 (eopseul mu))

    1. Hanja form? of (nothing).
    2. Hanja form? of (no; non).
    3. Hanja form? of ((Buddhism) the null set: neither yes nor no (in response to a koan or a question that mistakenly assumes an affirmative or negative answer)).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: [1][2][3][4], [2]
    : Nôm readings: [1][2][4][5], [2][6][4]

    1. chữ Hán form of (without; -less; un-).

    Compounds edit

    References edit