Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
(cursive)
無-cursive-order.gif
The character 無 in semi-cursive script.
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EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
無-oracle.svg 無-bronze.svg 無-bigseal.svg 無-seal.svg

Simplified from (elimination of ) – removal of 舛 (character used for sound). (Compare 可 from 奇.)

Source character meaning “dance”, top component graphically originally a figure with outstretched arms holding two animal hides: + + .

Han characterEdit

(radical 86 +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 人廿火 (OTF), four-corner 80331)

  1. negative, no, not
  2. lack, have no

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 673, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19113
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1081, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2211, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+7121

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Etymology 1Edit

Note: This character is used as a substitute for Min Nan , which may be etymologically unrelated.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (4)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/mɨo/ /mi̯u/ /mio/ /mio/ /muə̆/ /mĭu/ /mio/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ mju › /*ma/ not have
‹ mju › /*ma/ volitional prefix
‹ mju › /*mo/ don’t

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13117 0 /*ma/

AdverbEdit

  1. not, no
    /   ―    ―  can't
  2. (Min Nan) have not
    [Min Nan, trad.]
    [Min Nan, simp.]
    Góa kā i kóng. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    I didn't tell him.

NounEdit

  1. no, none, nothing, lack, nil
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    qiú yú nǐ. [Pinyin]
    I want nothing from you.
    到有 / 到有  ―  cóng dào yǒu  ―  start from nothing, from scratch

PrefixEdit

  1. without, -less, un-
    /   ―  qíng  ―  heartless
    /   ―    ―  unreasonable
    /   ―  biān  ―  unlimited

VerbEdit

  1. (literary, Min Nan) to not have, to lack, there is no
    天空 [MSC, trad.]
    天空 [MSC, simp.]
    Tiānkōng yún. [Pinyin]
    There is no cloud in the sky.
    零星錢 [Min Nan, trad.]
    零星钱 [Min Nan, simp.]
    Góa lân-san-chîⁿ. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    I don't have any change.
Usage notesEdit

Literary equivalent of 沒有没有 (méiyǒu)

SynonymsEdit

ConjunctionEdit

  1. regardless of, no matter whether
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Sanskrit नमस् ‎(namas).

PronunciationEdit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 南無南无.
CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. nothing
  2. nothingness
  3. none
  4. nil
  5. not

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
on'yomi

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji mu)

  1. nothing, nothingness
  2. (Buddhism): The null set: neither yes nor no (in response to a koan or other question that mistakenly assumes an affirmative or negative answer).

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji mu-)

  1. non-, un-

‎(hiragana , romaji bu-)

  1. non-, un-

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

Yakja (略字, simplified cursive) form of 無.

‎(mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune-Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

  1. (mu, “nothing”)
  2. (mu, “no”)
  3. (Buddhism) (mu, “neither yes nor no”) (in response to a koan or a question that mistakenly assumes an affirmative or negative answer)

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(, , thủy)

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