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U+5316, 化
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5316

[U+5315]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5317]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 21, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人心 (OP), four-corner 24210, composition𠤎(GV) or ⿰(HTJK))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 152, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 109, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5316

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋʷaːl
*ŋʷaːl
*ŋʷaːl
*lu, *ŋʷaːl
*ŋʷaːl
*hʷa
*hŋʷaːls
*hʷraː
*hŋʷraːls
*hŋʷraːls
*pilʔ

Ideogrammic compound (會意) of two (“person”), one upright () and one upside down (𠤎) — reversal; change. Shuowen also considers 𠤎 to be a phonetic component.

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hòa - literary;
  • hòe - vernacular;
  • òa - to cause to ferment.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xua⁵¹/
    Harbin /xua⁵³/
    Tianjin /xuɑ⁵³/
    Jinan /xua²¹/
    Qingdao /xua⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xua³¹²/
    Xi'an /xua⁴⁴/
    Xining /xua²¹³/
    Yinchuan /xua¹³/
    Lanzhou /xua¹³/
    Ürümqi /xua²¹³/
    Wuhan /xua³⁵/
    Chengdu /xua¹³/
    Guiyang /xua²¹³/
    Kunming /xua̠²¹²/
    Nanjing /xuɑ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /xua⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /xua⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /xuɑ³⁵/
    Hohhot /xua⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ho³⁵/
    /hua³⁵/
    Suzhou /ho⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /huɑ⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /ho⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /xua³²⁴/
    Tunxi /xuːə⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /fa⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /xuɒ⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /fɑ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fa⁵³/
    Taoyuan /fɑ⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /fa³³/
    Nanning /fa³³/
    Hong Kong /fa³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hua²¹/
    /hue²¹/
    /ua²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huɑ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xua³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hue²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hua³⁵/
    /hue³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hˠuaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hʷᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xuaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hwaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xuaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xwaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xwaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huà
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    huà
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xwæH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʷʰˤ<r>aj-s/
    English transform

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5327
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hŋʷraːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to change; to transform
    2. to become; to turn into
    3. to die
    4. to melt
    5. to dissolve
    6. Suffix denoting "change into ...". Akin to English -ize and -ization.
    7. Short for 教化 (jiàohuà, “enlightenment; cultivation”).
    8. Short for 化學化学 (huàxué, “chemistry”).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“flower; blossom; florid; flowery; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“goods; commodities; products”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji -ka)

    1. -ization, -ification; action of making something that way

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune–Reischauer hwa)

    1. to transform

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hoá, huế, hoa, Huế)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit