U+5316, 化
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5316

[U+5315]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5317]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 21, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人心 (OP), four-corner 24210, composition 𠤎(GV) or (HTJK))

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 152, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 109, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5316

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) of two (“person”), one upright () and one upside down (𠤎) — reversal; change. Shuowen also considers 𠤎 to be a phonetic component.

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • hòa - literary;
  • hòe - vernacular;
  • òa - to cause to ferment.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xua⁵¹/
    Harbin /xua⁵³/
    Tianjin /xuɑ⁵³/
    Jinan /xua²¹/
    Qingdao /xua⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xua³¹²/
    Xi'an /xua⁴⁴/
    Xining /xua²¹³/
    Yinchuan /xua¹³/
    Lanzhou /xua¹³/
    Ürümqi /xua²¹³/
    Wuhan /xua³⁵/
    Chengdu /xua¹³/
    Guiyang /xua²¹³/
    Kunming /xua̠²¹²/
    Nanjing /xuɑ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /xua⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /xua⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /xuɑ³⁵/
    Hohhot /xua⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ho³⁵/
    /hua³⁵/
    Suzhou /ho⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /huɑ⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /ho⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /xua³²⁴/
    Tunxi /xuːə⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /fa⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /xuɒ⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /fɑ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fa⁵³/
    Taoyuan /fɑ⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /fa³³/
    Nanning /fa³³/
    Hong Kong /fa³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hua²¹/
    /hue²¹/
    /ua²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huɑ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xua³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hue²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hua³⁵/
    /hue³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (99)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Baxter xwaeH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hˠuaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hʷᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xuaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hwaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xuaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xwaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xwaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huà
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    faa3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    huà
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xwæH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʷʰˁ<r>aj-s/
    English transform

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5327
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hŋʷraːls/

    Definitions edit

    1. to change; to transform
    2. to become; to turn into
    3. to die
    4. to melt
        ―  bǎ xuě huàdiào  ―  make snow melt
    5. to dissolve
    6. Suffix denoting "change into ...". Akin to English -ize and -ization.
      民主  ―  mínzhǔhuà  ―  democratize
    7. (chemistry) Affix denoting combination.
        ―  yǎnghuàgài  ―  calcium oxide
      氫氧氢氧  ―  qīngyǎnghuà  ―  sodium hydroxide
    8. Short for 教化 (jiàohuà, “enlightenment; cultivation”).
    9. (in compounds) Short for 化學化学 (huàxué, “chemistry”).
        ―  huà  ―  household chemicals
        ―  huàgōng  ―  chemical industry
    10. to burn (clarification of this definition is needed)
        ―  huàbǎo  ―  to burn offerings
    11. (Cantonese) open-minded; enlightened
      [Cantonese]  ―  tai2 faa3 [Jyutping]  ―  to see things in an open-minded manner
      [Cantonese]  ―  gaau3 gik6 dou1 m4 faa3 [Jyutping]  ―  to teach someone repeatedly but still does not become enlightened

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ke); () (ka)
    • Korean: 화(化) (hwa)
    • Vietnamese: hoá ()

    Etymology 2 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“flower; blossom; florid; flowery; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of ).

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“money and goods; property; goods; commodities; products; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of ).

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC xwaeH).

    Pronunciation edit

    Affix edit

    () (kaくわ (kwa)?

    1. to change; to take the form of
    2. to influence

    Suffix edit

    () (-kaくわ (kwa)?

    1. -ization, -ification; action of making something that way

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC xwaeH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 황〮 (Yale: hwá)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 도욀 (Yale: twòwòyl) 화〯 (Yale: hwǎ)

    Pronunciation edit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɸwa̠(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (doel hwa))

    1. Hanja form? of (to be; to become). [affix]
    2. Hanja form? of (-ization; -ification). [suffix]

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese edit

    chữ Hán Nôm in this term

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: hóa/hoá[1][2][3], góa/goá[1]
    : Nôm readings: Huế[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of hoá (to transform; to change into; to become).
    2. Nôm form of Huế (Huế City).

    References edit