See also:
U+7A2E, 種
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A2E

[U+7A2D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7A2F]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 115, +9, 14 strokes, cangjie input 竹木竹十土 (HDHJG), four-corner 22914, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 856, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25174
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1281, character 33
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2617, character 17
  • Unihan data for U+7A2E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms
𥡰
𥢖
𦔉

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tjoŋʔ, *tjoŋs): semantic + phonetic (OC *doŋ, *doŋʔ, *doŋs).

EtymologyEdit

Perhaps Sino-Tibetan: Chepang [script needed] (tuŋʔ-, to plant), दुङ्‌ (duŋ, shoot; sprout), दुङ्‌सा (duŋ-, to sprout; to grow). Compare (OC *tjoŋʔ, “to swell”) and (OC *tjoŋʔ, “heel”).

Related to Proto-Vietic *k-coːŋʔ (seed) (Vietnamese giống (seed)), which is likely a loanword from Chinese (Wang, 1948).

Pronunciation 2 ("to sow; to plant") is the exoactive derivation of pronunciation 1 ("seed").

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • chéng - vernacular;
  • chióng - literary.
Note:
  • zêng2 - vernacular;
  • zong2 - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (7)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕɨoŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕioŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕioŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cuawŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕioŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭwoŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯woŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhǒng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhǒng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyowngX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k.toŋʔ/
    English seed

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 17471
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjoŋʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. seed; kernel; cereal
      /   ―  càizhǒng  ―  seed of vegetable
    2. clan; ethnic group; ethnicity; race
      /   ―  rénzhǒng  ―  race
      /   ―  zhǒng  ―  ethnicity
    3. species; breed
    4. kind; sort; type
    5. Classifier for varieties: kind; sort; typeall nouns using this classifier
      /   ―  zhǒng  ―  every kind
      Synonym: (lèi)
    6. (colloquial) guts; grit
    7. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • chèng - vernacular;
    • chiòng - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (7)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕɨoŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕioŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕioŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cuawŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕioŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭwoŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯woŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhòng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhòng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyowngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*(mə-)toŋʔ-s/
    English sow (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 17476
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjoŋs/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to sow; to strew
    2. to grow; to plant; to cultivate
      /   ―  zhòng shù  ―  to plant a tree
    3. to breed; to bring up
    4. to foster; to train
    5. to transplant; to inoculate
    SynonymsEdit
    • (to cultivate):

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. cereal that is to plant early and to harvest lately
    2. A surname​.

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. seed
    2. plant, sow
    3. class, kind, variety
    4. species (category in taxonomy)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    たね
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tanay.

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (bloodline, lineage):

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (たね) (tane

    1. a seed
      Synonym: 種子 (shushi)
    2. a pit or stone in a fruit
      Synonym: (sane)
    3. a gamete (reproductive cell such as a spermatozoan or egg)
    4. a lineage, bloodline
      Synonyms: 血統 (kettō), 血筋 (chisuji)
    5. an origin, cause
      Synonyms: 根源 (kongen), 原因 (gen'in)
    6. the materials or ingredients from which something is made
      Synonyms: 原料 (genryō), 材料 (zairyō)
    7. capital, funds, seed money
      Synonyms: 元金 (gankin, motokin), 元手 (motode)
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (たね) (Tane

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くさ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly derived from or cognate with (kusa, grass), from the way grass is grown from seeds, hence their origin.

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (cause of something):

    PronunciationEdit

    • Pitch accent for counter unknown.

    NounEdit

    (くさ) (kusa

    1. an origin, cause
    2. a type, class
      Synonyms: 種類 (shurui), 類い (tagui)
    Derived termsEdit

    CounterEdit

    (くさ) (-kusa

    1. counter for number of kinds or types
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くさわい
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    ⟨kusa papi1 → * /kusapapʲi//kusafafi//kusawawʲi//kusawai/

    Compound of (kusa, origin; type) + 這い (hai, widely spread out), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) 這う (hau, to spread out widely).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (くさわい) (kusawai (historical kana くさはひ)

    1. an origin, cause
      Synonym: 原因 (gen'in)
    2. a type, class
      Synonyms: 種類 (shurui), 類い (tagui)
    3. an interest, appeal
      Synonyms: (omomuki), 面白み (omoshiromi)

    Etymology 4Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    しゅ
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    /t͡ɕɨu//ɕʲu//ɕu/

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕɨoŋX).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (しゅ) (shu

    1. a seed
      Synonym: 種子 (shushi)
    2. a kind, type, sort, class, or category
      Synonyms: 種類 (shurui), 類い (tagui)
    3. (taxonomy) a species
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕɨoŋX, “seed”). Recorded as Middle Korean 죠ᇰ〯 (Yale: cyǒng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    PronunciationEdit

    (seed; kernel):

    (kind; sort; etc.):

    • (Standard Korean) Phonetic hangeul: [ː]
      Only applies at the initial position of a word. Always pronounced as a short vowel in other positions. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ssi jong))

    1. Hanja form? of (seed; kernel).
    2. Hanja form? of (kind; sort; type).
    3. Hanja form? of ((taxonomy) a species).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕɨoŋH, “sow”). Recorded as Middle Korean 죠ᇰ〮 (Yale: cyóng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 심을 (simeul jong))

    1. Hanja form? of (to plant; to cultivate).
    2. Hanja form? of (to transplant; to inoculate).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: chủng ((chủ)(dũng)(thiết))[1][2][3][4], chũng[5]
    : Nôm readings: giống[1][2][3][6][5][4][7], chỏng[3][6][5][4][7], chõng[1][5][4][7], chủng[2][3][6][7], trồng[1][2][3], chổng[6][7], truồng[1], giuống[7]

    1. Hán tự form of chủng (species; race; type; kind).
    2. Nôm form of giống (kind; race; breed).
    3. Nôm form of trồng (to plant).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit