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U+5B50, 子
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B50

[U+5B4F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B51]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 39, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 弓木 (ND), four-corner 17407, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #39, .

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 277, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6930
  • Dae Jaweon: page 543, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1006, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5B50

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔslɯ
*ʔslɯ, *ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯ, *zlɯs
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*zlɯs
*zlɯs
*zlɯs
*zlɯs
*rɯʔ

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby, with a large head and spread arms. The legs are wrapped in a blanket. Compare with , where the arms are wrapped.

The big seal script form is much more elaborate, showing a baby with hair on a head () and arms on the two sides of the body, sitting on a stool ().

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsa ~ za (child, offspring, relatives; to come forth (as child at birth); to love; loving).

Cognate with (OC *zlɯs, “character; letter”), (OC *zɯ, “loving; kind”), (OC *ʔsɯ, “to grow, to breed, to propagate, to bring about, to increase”), (OC *ʔsɯ, *zɯs, “to breed, to propagate”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • chú/chír - literary;
  • chí - colloquial (“seed; egg”).
Note:
  • ze2 - literary;
  • zi2 - colloquial.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɨX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɨX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sieX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡siəX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sĭəX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡siX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsiX › ‹ tsiX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ts]əʔ/ /*tsəʔ/
    English 1st earthly branch child; gentleman, master

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 17857
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔslɯʔ/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. child; offspring
    2. son
    3. descendant; posterity
    4. person
      •   ―    ―  female; woman
    5. master; teacher
    6. A respectful suffix for teachers, usually attached to their surnames.
    7. you
    8. Alternative form of (, “seed”).
      • 葵花  ―  kuíhuā  ―  sunflower seed
    9. egg
    10. young; tender; small
    11. Prefix attached to nouns, denoting "a part of", "belonging to" or "individual". sub-
    12. (astrology) First earthly branch: rat in the Chinese zodiac, 11th solar month, midnight (11:00 pm to 1:00 am)
    13. Viscount, fourth of five ranks of Chinese aristocracy under the Zhou dynasty.
    14. (physics, biology) -on
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 兒子 (“son”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 兒子
    Mandarin Beijing 兒子小子
    Taiwan 兒子
    Tianjin 兒子小子
    Harbin 兒子
    Shenyang 兒子
    Jinan 兒子小子
    Muping 兒郎
    Luoyang 兒子
    Jiedian
    Xi'an 兒子
    Xining 兒子
    Xuzhou 兒子
    Yinchuan 兒子
    Lanzhou 兒子
    Ürümqi 兒子
    Wuhan 兒子
    Chengdu 兒子
    Guiyang 兒子男娃娃男娃兒
    Liuzhou
    Kunming 兒子
    Yangzhou 兒子
    Nanjing 兒子
    Hefei 兒子
    Nantong
    Malaysia 兒子
    Singapore 兒子
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian 倈仔
    Xingning 倈哩
    Huidong 倈仔
    Qujiang 倈子
    Xiaosanjiang 阿弟
    Changting 倈子
    Pingyu 倈子
    Wuping 子哩
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin 倈子
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 倈仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 倈仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 倈仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 倈仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 後生
    Huizhou Jixi 兒子
    Jin Taiyuan 兒子小子
    Xinzhou 小子
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 丈夫囝
    Min Nan Xiamen 後生後的
    Quanzhou 後生
    Zhangzhou 後生
    Taipei 後生
    Kaohsiung 後生
    Tainan 後生
    Taichung 後生後的
    Hsinchu 後生
    Lukang 後生
    Sanxia 後生
    Yilan 後生
    Kinmen 後生
    Magong 後生
    Penang 後生
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou 逗囝
    Haikou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 兒子
    Suzhou 兒子
    Hangzhou 兒子
    Wenzhou
    Chongming 兒子
    Danyang 兒子
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 兒子
    Xiang Changsha 崽伢子伢子
    Shuangfeng 伢基
    Loudi
    Coordinate termsEdit
    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɨX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɨX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sieX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡siəX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sĭəX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡siX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsiX › ‹ tsiX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ts]əʔ/ /*tsəʔ/
    English 1st earthly branch child; gentleman, master

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 17857
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔslɯʔ/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Suffix for small objects or general diminutive suffix.
      •   ―  píngzi  ―  bottle
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of (“general diminutive suffix”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    (Hokkien)

    1. small, round object
    2. (Xiamen, Quanzhou) Classifier for small objects.
    3. (Zhangzhou, Taiwan) Classifier for bananas.

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“seed”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1] Seen in the Kojiki and the Man'yōshū, two of the oldest examples of written Japanese. Cognate with (ko, silkworm). Also possibly cognate with (ko, little, diminutive prefix).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (child): (less commonly used)
    • (girl):

    NounEdit

    (counter , hiragana , rōmaji ko)

    1. a child
      男のおとこのotoko no ko — male child: a boy
      いいいいii ko — good boy; good girl
      • 2007 October 20, Hiroshi, Izawa; Kotaro, Yamada, “さいしゅう それぞれのみち [Final Chapter: Epilog]”, in ファイアーエムブレム 覇者の剣 [Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions], volume 5 (fiction, in Japanese), Jump Remix edition, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 355:
        のちにラグナのセルディアとむすばれ8にんもうけた
        Nochi ni Raguna no Serudia to musubare hachi-nin no ko o mōketa
        He later had 8 children with Serdia of Ragna
    2. (figuratively) a girl, especially a dear or desired one (compare use of English baby, babe)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1266); text here
        大舟乎 荒海尓榜出 八船多氣 吾見之等之 目見者知之母
        大船を 荒海に漕ぎ出で や船たけ 我が見しらが まみはしるしも
        おほぶねを あるみにこぎで やふねたけ わがみしらが まみはしるしも
        Ōbune o / arumi ni kogi de / ya fune take / waga mishi kora ga / mami wa shirushi mo
        Rowing the big boat into the rough seas, putting our backs into it, the looks of those girls I saw are clear [in my mind]
    3. a smaller or younger version of a bigger object
      きのkinoko — a "tree's child / little one": a mushroom
      竹のたけのtakenoko — a "bamboo's child / little one": a bamboo shoot
    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ko-)

    1. an object which has a subservient or derivative role relative to another object
      会社 がいしゃkogaisha — a subsidiary
      いぬkoinu — a puppy
    Derived termsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji -ko)

    1. suffix used in female given names, such as 智子 (ともこ, ​Tomoko), 英子 (えいこ, ​Eiko), 秀子 (ひでこ, ​Hideko), 美奈子 (みなこ, ​Minako)
    2. (rare) suffix used in male given names
    3. an object having a particular state or property (sometimes diminutive)
      ふりfuriko — an object that swings: a pendulum
    4. roe (only when preceded by a fish name, or fish-related prefix)
      明太めんたいmentaiko — pollock roe
      とびtobiko — flying fish roe
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (tsiX). Compare modern Mandarin ().

    The goon reading of shi is likely the original borrowing. The tōon reading su appears later, and only shows up in certain set terms borrowed from Chinese, where it seems to serve as a kind of nominalizing suffix.

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi) (alternative reading hiragana , romaji su)

    1. a child
    2. an object which has a subservient or derivative role relative to another object
    3. an object having a particular state or property (sometimes diminutive)
      中性ちゅうせいchūseishi — a neutral small thing: a neutron
      isu — literally, a chair small thing: a chair
    Usage notesEdit
    • This affix is never used in isolation. It is only used in on'yomi compounds.
    • In some kanji compounds, is part of the word but does not carry much meaning in Japanese, as in 椅子 (isu, chair). Possibly because of this erosion of meaning, spelling out in some compounds has become optional, as in 椰子 vs. (yashi, a palm tree), or 柚子 vs. (yuzu, an aromatic citron).
    • In some compounds, the shi or su reading becomes voiced as ji or zu due to rendaku.
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji Shi)

    1. the Rat, the first of the twelve Earthly Branches

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Contracted from (nezumi, rat; mouse)

    PronunciationEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji Ne)

    1. the Rat, the first of the twelve Earthly Branches

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 아들 (adeul ja))

    1. son
    2. man
    3. offspring

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tử, )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit