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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 39, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 弓木 (ND), four-corner 17407, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #39, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 277, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6930
  • Dae Jaweon: page 543, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1006, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5B50

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔslɯ
*ʔslɯ, *ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯ, *zlɯs
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*ʔslɯʔ
*zlɯs
*zlɯs
*zlɯs
*zlɯs
*rɯʔ

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby, with a large head and spread arms. The legs are wrapped in a blanket. Compare with , where the arms are wrapped.

The big seal script form is much more elaborate, showing a baby with hair on a head () and arms on the two sides of the body, sitting on a stool ().

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsa ~ za (child, offspring, relatives; to come forth (as child at birth); to love; loving).

Cognate with (OC *zlɯs, “character; letter”), (OC *zɯ, “loving; kind”), (OC *ʔsɯ, “to grow, to breed, to propagate, to bring about, to increase”), (OC *ʔsɯ, *zɯs, “to breed, to propagate”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • chú/chír - literary;
  • chí - colloquial (“seed; egg”).
Note:
  • ze2 - literary;
  • zi2 - colloquial.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɨX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɨX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sieX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡siəX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sĭəX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡siX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsiX › ‹ tsiX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ts]əʔ/ /*tsəʔ/
    English 1st earthly branch child; gentleman, master

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 17857
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔslɯʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. child; offspring
    2. son
    3. descendant; posterity
    4. person
      •   ―    ―  female; woman
    5. master; teacher
    6. A respectful suffix for teachers, usually attached to their surnames.
    7. you
    8. Alternative form of (, “seed”); also its second-round simplified form.
      • 葵花  ―  kuíhuā  ―  sunflower seed
    9. egg
    10. young; tender; small
    11. Prefix attached to nouns, denoting "a part of", "belonging to" or "individual". sub-
    12. (astrology) First earthly branch: rat in the Chinese zodiac, 11th solar month, midnight (11:00 pm to 1:00 am)
    13. Viscount, fourth of five ranks of Chinese aristocracy under the Zhou dynasty.
    14. (physics, biology) -on
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 兒子 (“son”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 兒子
    Mandarin Beijing 兒子, 小子
    Taiwan 兒子
    Tianjin 兒子, 小子
    Harbin 兒子
    Shenyang 兒子
    Jinan , 兒子, 小子
    Muping 兒郎,
    Luoyang 兒子
    Wanrong ,
    Xi'an , 兒子
    Xining 兒子
    Xuzhou , 兒子
    Yinchuan 兒子
    Lanzhou 兒子
    Ürümqi 兒子
    Wuhan 兒子,
    Chengdu 兒子,
    Guiyang 兒子, 男娃娃, 男娃兒
    Liuzhou
    Kunming 兒子
    Yangzhou 兒子
    Nanjing 兒子
    Hefei 兒子
    Nantong
    Malaysia 兒子
    Singapore 兒子
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Yangjiang
    Danzhou
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan ,
    Pingxiang , 倈牯,
    Hakka Meixian 倈仔
    Xingning 倈哩
    Huidong (Daling) 倈仔
    Qujiang 倈子
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿弟
    Changting 倈子
    Pingyu 倈子
    Wuping 子哩
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin 倈子
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 倈仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 倈仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 倈仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 倈仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 後生
    Sabah 倈子
    Huizhou Jixi 兒子
    Jin Taiyuan 兒子, 小子
    Xinzhou , 小子
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou , 丈夫囝
    Min Nan Xiamen , 後生, 後的
    Quanzhou , 後生
    Zhangzhou , 後生
    Taipei , 後生
    Kaohsiung , 後生
    Tainan , 後生
    Taichung , 後生, 後的
    Hsinchu , 後生
    Lukang , 後生
    Sanxia , 後生
    Yilan , 後生
    Kinmen , 後生
    Magong , 後生
    Penang , 後生
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou , 逗囝
    Shantou , 逗囝
    Haifeng 丈夫囝
    Haikou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 兒子
    Suzhou 兒子
    Hangzhou 兒子
    Wenzhou
    Chongming 兒子
    Danyang 兒子
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 兒子
    Xiang Changsha 崽伢子, , 伢子
    Shuangfeng , 伢基
    Loudi
    Coordinate termsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɨX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɨX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sieX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡siəX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sĭəX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡siX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsiX › ‹ tsiX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ts]əʔ/ /*tsəʔ/
    English 1st earthly branch child; gentleman, master

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 17857
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔslɯʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Suffix for small objects or general diminutive suffix.
      •   ―  píngzi  ―  bottle
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of (“general diminutive suffix”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Penang

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    (Hokkien)

    1. small, round object
    2. (Xiamen, Quanzhou) Classifier for small objects.
    3. (Zhangzhou, Taiwan) Classifier for bananas.

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. child
    2. honorific for an adult man
    3. honorific for a learned man, master
    4. man in general
    5. fourth rank of nobility in Meiji-postwar Japan, viscount
    6. egg, fruit, seed
    7. small object
    8. interest
    9. diminutive suffix
    10. Rat (earthly branch)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    is also an obsolete variant form of the katakana (ne).

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ko1 → */kʷo//ko/

    From Old Japanese,[1] attested in the Kojiki (712 CE) and the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE), two of the oldest examples of written Japanese.

    Cognate with (ko, silkworm) and possibly (ko, little, diminutive prefix).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (counter , hiragana , rōmaji ko)

    1. a child
      • 2007 October 20, Izawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kotaro, “だい39 りゅうほうこう [Chapter 39: Dragon’s Roar]”, in ファイアーエムブレム 覇者の剣 [Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions], volume 5 (fiction), Jump Remix edition, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 113:
        ここまで (たたか)ってきたのに…まんまと (ふう) (いん)されちまって () (あし) ()ないなんて… (なに)が…ハルトムートの ()だ… (なに) (りゅう) ()だ‼
        Koko made tatakatte kita no ni… manmato fūin sarechimatte te mo ashi mo denai nan te… Nani ga… Harutomūto no ko da… Nani ga ryū no ko da‼
        I’ve fought my way to this point… only to end up being sealed, unable to move at all… So what… if I’m Hartmut’s son… So what if I’m a dragon child⁉
      • 2007 October 20, Izawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kotaro, “さいしゅう それぞれのみち [Final Chapter: Epilog]”, in ファイアーエムブレム 覇者の剣 [Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions], volume 5 (fiction), Jump Remix edition, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 355:
         (のち)にラグナのセルディアと (むす)ばれ8 (にん) () (もう)けた
        Nochi ni Raguna no Serudia to musubare hachinin no ko o mōketa
        He later had 8 children with Celdia of Ragna
      (otoko no ko): male childboy
      いい (ii ko): good boy; good girl
    2. (figuratively) a girl, especially a dear or desired one (compare use of English baby, babe)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1266), text here
        大舟 (おほぶね) ()荒海 (あるみ) () (こぎ) () () () () (たけ) (わが) () () () () () () () () (しる) () () [Man'yōgana]
        大船 (おほぶね)荒海 (あるみ) () () (ふね)たけ () () ()らがまみはしるしも [Modern spelling]
        ōbune o arumi ni kogi de ya fune take waga mishi kora ga mami wa shirushi mo
        Rowing the big boat into the rough seas, putting our backs into it, the looks of those girls I saw are clear [in my mind]
    3. a smaller or younger version of a bigger object
      (ki no ko): tree + child/little one (kinoko, mushroom)
      (take no ko): bamboo + child/little one (takenoko, bamboo shoot)
    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ko-)

    1. an object which has a subservient or derivative role relative to another object
      会社 (kogaisha): derivative + company → a subsidiary
      (koinu): derivative + dog → a puppy
    Derived termsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji -ko)

    1. suffix used in female given names, such as 智子 (​Tomoko), 英子 (​Eiko), 秀子 (​Hideko), 美奈子 (​Minako)
    2. (rare) suffix used in male given names
    3. an object having a particular state or property (sometimes diminutive)
      (furiko): an object that swings → a pendulum
    4. roe (only when preceded by a fish name, or fish-related prefix)
      明太 (mentaiko, pollock roe)
      (tobiko, flying fish roe)
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji Ko)

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sɨX), also used in the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE) as 借音 (shakuon) kana for ⟨si⟩. Compare modern Mandarin ().

    The goon reading of shi is likely the original borrowing:

    /t͡sɨ//sɨ/ → */ɕɨ//ɕi/

    The tōon reading su appears later, and only shows up in certain set terms borrowed from Chinese, where it seems to serve as a kind of nominalizing suffix:

    /t͡sɨ//sɨ/ → */sʉ//su/

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi, alternative reading , rōmaji su)

    1. a child
    2. Short for 子爵 (shishaku): the fourth rank of nobility in Meiji-postwar Japan, equivalent to a viscount
    3. an honorific for a learned man, such as teacher or master
    4. a philosophy branch of Chinese literature, either derived from or outside of the Hundred Schools of Thought
    5. an object which has a subservient or derivative role relative to another object
    6. an object having a particular state or property (sometimes diminutive)
      中性 (chūseishi): neutral + small thing → a neutron
      (isu): chair + small thing → a chair
    Usage notesEdit
    • This affix is never used in isolation. It is only used in on'yomi compounds.
    • In some kanji compounds, is part of the word but does not carry much meaning in Japanese, as in 椅子 (isu, chair). Possibly because of this erosion of meaning, spelling out in some compounds has become optional, as in 椰子 vs. (yashi, a palm tree), or 柚子 vs. (yuzu, an aromatic citron).
    • In some compounds, the shi or su reading becomes voiced as ji or zu due to rendaku.
    Derived termsEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

    1. (archaic) second-person pronoun: you (of one's equals)

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji Shi)

    1. (Chinese astrology) Rat, the first of the twelve Earthly Branches

    Etymology 3Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Contracted from (nezumi, mouse, rat).

    PronunciationEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji Ne)

    1. (Chinese astrology) Rat, the first of the twelve Earthly Branches:
      1. north
        Synonym: (kita)
      2. the hours between 11:00 P.M./midnight and 1:00/2:00 A.M.
      3. a day or year assigned to the Rat
      4. the eleventh month of the lunar calendar
    2. a place name
    Derived termsEdit

    SyllableEdit

    (ne)

    1. (dated, until the 19th century) variant katakana syllable (ne).
      • Udagawa Yōan, 遠西医方名物考, vol. 4, 1822
        剥篤ポット亞斯アス 「シレス、カラーヘルラチ」
        […] 是ヲ燒ク法、曠野ニ一大坑ヲ穿チ其底ト内圍ニアマク瓦磗ヲシキ、樹ノ幹枝𪜈ニキリテ其内ニ積ミモヤオハリテ煙消シ通紅トナルトキ尋常灰汁アクヲ取テ少シツヽ頻〻ニマキチラストキハ其灰ノ鹽氣凝結𬼀堅キ塊片トナル。
      • 第1回国会参法一覧
        小杉イ議員

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji mi)

    1. (archaic, rare) Alternative spelling of (mi): a fruit, nut, or seed (of a plant, tree, etc.); ingredients put in a soup; a content, substance

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 아들 (adeul ja))

    1. son
    2. man
    3. offspring

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: ((tức)()(thiết))[1][2], tử[2][3], [3]
    : Nôm readings: [1][2], tử[2][4], [1], tít[2], tở[3]

    1. Hán tự form of (first earthly branch).
    2. Hán tự form of tử (Clipping of tử số (numerator).).
    3. Nôm form of (a little bit).

    ReferencesEdit