See also:
U+500B, 個
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-500B

[U+500A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+500C]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人田十口 (OWJR), four-corner 26200, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 107, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 758
  • Dae Jaweon: page 228, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 178, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+500B

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːls): semantic  (person) + phonetic  (OC *kaːs).

EtymologyEdit

The semantics may have developed along the grammaticalisation process "bamboo stalk" () > "piece, item" > "classifier for every category of noun" > "possessive particle, generic particle". If so, it would then possibly be cognate with 竿 (OC *kaːn, “bamboo, rod”). Compare Tibetan མཁར་བ (mkhar ba), འཁར་བ ('khar ba, walking stick, staff) and Thai ก้าน (gâan, stem, stalk).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ge - classifier;
  • gě - colloquial, used in 自個兒.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • gó̤ - literary;
    • gá - classifier.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kò - literary (including classifier for months);
    • ê/gê - generic classifier;
    • ê - possessive particle (usually written as ).
    Note:
    • go6 - literary;
    • gai5 - classifier, or particle introducing the object of the verb (equivalent to );
    • gai7 - possessive particle;.
  • Wu
    • (Shanghainese)
      • Wiktionary: geq (T5); hheq (T5); eq (T4); ku (T2)
      • Sinological IPA (key): /ɡ̊əʔ¹²/, /ɦəʔ¹²/, /əʔ⁵⁵/, /kv̩ʷ³⁴/
  • Note:
    • 5geq ~ 5hheq ~ 4eq - classifier or particle;
    • 2ku - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁa[r]-s/
    English piece, item

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4208
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːls/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. piece; item; individual
      /   ―  rén  ―  an individual; personal
      /   ―    ―  individuality
    2. size; height
      /   ―  zi  ―  height; stature
      /   ―  r  ―  size
    3. separate; respective; separately; individually
      /   ―  bié  ―  individual; separate; some; a couple of
    4. single; alone
    5. (dialectal Hakka, dialectal Min, dialectal Wu) one
    6. The generic classifier for people or for things lacking specific classifiers.
      /   ―  rén  ―  one person
      /   ―  měi rén  ―  every person; everyone
      問題 / 问题  ―  Wǒ yǒu yī wèntí.  ―  I have a question.
      / [Taiwanese]  ―  nn̄g ê lâng [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  two people
      屋企先生邊度 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
      屋企先生边度 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
      Zyu6 hoeng2 nei5 uk1 kei5 go3 can4 sin1 saang1 hai6 bin1 dou6 jan4 lai4 gaa3? [Jyutping]
      Where is that Mr. Chan who lives at your house from?
    7. Classifier for hours and months.
      鐘頭 / 钟头  ―  zhōngtóu  ―  one hour
      /   ―  jiǔ yuè  ―  nine months
      / [Taiwanese]  ―  saⁿ goe̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  three months
    8. Alternative classifier, for nouns having specific classifiers. Often colloquial and regional. Usage varies greatly between different topolects.
      學校 / 学校  ―  xuéxiào  ―  one school
      / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 zeng2 [Jyutping]  ―  a well
      / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 fong4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  a room
    9. (Cantonese) Classifier for yuan, dollars, etc., used when followed by cents.
      / [Cantonese]  ―  saam1 go3 gau2 hou4 gau2 [Jyutping]  ―  three dollars and ninety-nine cents
      / [Cantonese]  ―  baat3 go3 luk6 [Jyutping]  ―  eight dollars and sixty cents
      檸檬 [Cantonese, trad.]
      柠檬 [Cantonese, simp.]
      go3 bun3 sap6 zek3 ning4 mung4-1 [Jyutping]
      ten lemons for a dollar and a half
    10. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and numbers, showing that the following numbers are approximate, not accurate.
      一下公里不在話下 [MSC, trad.]
      一下公里不在话下 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā yīxià pǎo liǎng sān gōnglǐ dōu bùzàihuàxià. [Pinyin]
      Running two or three kilometers in one go is a piece of cake for him.
      他們 [MSC, trad.]
      他们 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen liǎ jiù chà yī liǎng suì. [Pinyin]
      The age difference between them is only about one or two years.
    11. (Mandarin, Cantonese, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and its object or complement, adding a sense of ease, swiftness and one-offness to the action.
      休息休息 [MSC, trad.]
      休息休息 [MSC, simp.]
      chī fàn, xǐ ge zǎo, xiūxi xiūxi [Pinyin]
      have a meal, take a shower and have some rest
      我們昨天近況 [MSC, trad.]
      我们昨天近况 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen zuótiān jiàn le miàn, liáo le liáo jìnkuàng. [Pinyin]
      We met yesterday, and chatted about how we've been recently.
    12. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle used after (xiē).
      那些現在回憶起來還是記憶猶新 [MSC, trad.]
      那些现在回忆起来还是记忆犹新 [MSC, simp.]
      Nàxiē nián de shì xiànzài huíyì qǐlái háishì jìyìyóuxīn. [Pinyin]
      It feels like yesterday when I reminisce about those stories in the past.
    13. (dialectal Mandarin) Particle used in some time-related words.
      今兒 / 今儿  ―  jīnrge  ―  (dialectal) today
    14. (literary or Wu, Xiang, Gan, dialectal Cantonese, dialectal Min) (= ) this; that
      / [Shanghainese]  ―  this person
      鴨子 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      鸭子 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      This duck hasn't been cooked long enough for it to become tender.
    15. (Cantonese, Wu) Word-initial particle, serving as the definite article.
      今朝為啥 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      今朝为啥 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      Why hasn't that guy come today?
    16. (dialectal Cantonese, Hakka, Wu, Teochew, Hainanese) Possessive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin (de).
      (ge3) (Cantonese), (kaq) (Wu), (ê) (Hokkien)
      小囡 / 小囡 [Shanghainese]  ―  my child
      客家精神 / 客家精神 [Hakka]  ―  hak-kâ ke chîn-sṳ̀n [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  the Hakka spirit
    17. (dialectal) Sentence-final declarative, affirmative, or prohibitive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin (de), (le).
      標語 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      标语 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      I didn't write that slogan.
    18. (often dialectal) Emphatic particle between a pronoun and a noun, usually to highlight some negative quality of the person.
      笨蛋 / 笨蛋  ―  bèndàn!  ―  You idiot!
      / [Cantonese]  ―  Keoi5 go3 jan4 hou2 laan5. [Jyutping]  ―  He/she is such a sluggard.

    Usage notesEdit

    • For Min Nan, Taiwan's Ministry of Education recommends for the general classifier ê and for the possessive particle to differentiate them from ().
    • For Hakka, Taiwan's Ministry of Education recommends for the possessive particle.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ko)
    • Korean: (, gae)
    • Vietnamese: ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: cái

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    • Go-on: (ka)
    • Kan-on: (ka)
    • Tō-on: (ko, Jōyō)

    CounterEdit

    () (-ko

    1. item, article, thing
      あの(えだ)(さくら)()(じゅう)()()だけあります。
      Ano eda ni sakuranbo ga jūni-ko dake arimasu.
      There are only twelve cherries on that branch.

    Usage notesEdit

    This is the most generic counter in Japanese. It can be used to count just about anything.

    See alsoEdit

    Japanese number-counter combinations for () (ko)
    1 2 3 4 5
    (いっ)() (ikko) ()() (niko) (さん)() (sanko) (よん)() (yonko) ()() (goko)
    6 7 8 9 10
    (ろっ)() (rokko) (なな)() (nanako)
    (しち)() (shichiko)
    (はっ)() (hakko) (きゅう)() (kyūko) (じゅっ)() (jukko)
    (じっ)() (jikko)
    100 1,000 10,000 How many?
    (ひゃっ)() (hyakko) (せん)() (senko) (いち)(まん)() (ichimanko) (なん)() (nanko)

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eum (gae))

    1. a piece
    2. a unit
    3. an item.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: , cái

    1. generic classifier

    ReferencesEdit