See also:
U+500B, 個
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-500B

[U+500A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+500C]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 9, +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人田十口 (OWJR), four-corner 26200, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 107, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 758
  • Dae Jaweon: page 228, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 178, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+500B

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːls): semantic (person) + phonetic (OC *kaːs).

EtymologyEdit

The semantics may have developed along the grammaticalisation process "bamboo stalk" () > "piece, item" > "classifier for every category of noun" > "possessive particle, generic particle". If so, it would then possibly be cognate with 竿 (OC *kaːn, “bamboo, rod”). Compare Tibetan མཁར་བ (mkhar ba), འཁར་བ ('khar ba, walking stick, staff) and Thai ก้าน (gâan, stem, stalk).

Min Nan classifier and possessive particle
Hokkien ê/ (classifier), ê (possessive particle), Teochew gai5 (classifier), gai7 (possessive particle): from (OC *ɡɯ) (Li, 2002; Douglas, 1899[1]). Cognate with Min Dong (, possessive particle), Min Bei (gâ̤, possessive particle). The modern forms of these cognates all derive from the 陽平阳平 (“yangping”) tone.
Wu classifier and possessive particle
Though the expected pronunciation (in for instance Shanghainese) would be /ku/, this has underwent glottalisation (Dai, 2004). Compare (“to be in, to be at”), (“to”). In Shanghainese, this often undergoes further lenition to /ɦəʔ/.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ge - classifier;
  • gě - colloquial, used in 自個兒.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • gó̤ - literary;
    • gá - classifier.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kò - literary (including classifier for months);
    • ê/gê - generic classifier;
    • ê - possessive particle (usually written as ).
    Note:
    • go6 - literary;
    • gai5 - classifier, or particle introducing the object of the verb (equivalent to );
    • gai7 - possessive particle.
  • Wu
    • (Shanghainese)
      • Wiktionary: geq (T5); hheq (T5); eq (T4); ku (T2)
      • Sinological IPA (key): /ɡ̊əʔ¹²/, /ɦəʔ¹²/, /əʔ⁵⁵/, /kv̩ʷ³⁴/
  • Note:
    • 5geq ~ 5hheq ~ 4eq - classifier or particle;
    • 2ku - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kɤ⁵¹/
    Harbin /kɤ⁵¹/
    Tianjin
    Jinan /kɤ²¹³/
    /kɤ²¹/
    Qingdao /kə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /kə³¹/
    Xi'an /kɤ⁵⁵/
    Xining
    Yinchuan /kə¹³/
    Lanzhou /kə¹³/
    Ürümqi /kɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ko³⁵/
    Chengdu /ko²¹³/
    Guiyang /ko¹³/
    Kunming /ko²¹¹/
    Nanjing /ko⁴⁴/
    Hefei /kʊ⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /kɤ⁴⁵/
    Pingyao
    Hohhot /kəʔ³⁴/
    Wu Shanghai /ɡəʔ¹²/ 一~
    /ɦəʔ¹²/ 一~
    /ku³³⁴/ ~人
    Suzhou /kəʔ⁴³/ 一~
    /kəu⁵²³/ ~人
    Hangzhou /koʔ⁵/ 一~
    /ko⁴⁴⁵/ ~人
    Wenzhou /kai⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /kəo²¹³/
    Tunxi /ka⁴²/ 一~
    /kɔ⁴²/ 爾~爸
    Xiang Changsha /ko⁴⁵/
    Xiangtan /ko⁴⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /ko³⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /kɛ⁵²/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔ³³/
    Nanning /kɔ³³/
    Hong Kong /kɔ³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ko¹¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kɔ²¹³/
    /ka²¹³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kai⁵⁵/
    /ko⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kai²¹/
    /ke²¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    go3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁa[r]-s/
    English piece, item

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4208
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːls/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. single; alone; individual
        ―  rén  ―  an individual; personal
        ―    ―  individuality
        ―  bié  ―  individual; separate; some; a couple of
    2. height; build; stature
        ―  zi  ―  height; stature
        ―  r  ―  size
    3. (dialectal Hakka, dialectal Min, dialectal Wu) one
    4. The generic classifier for people or for things lacking specific classifiers.
        ―  rén  ―  one person
        ―  měi rén  ―  every person; everyone
      問題问题  ―  Wǒ yǒu yī wèntí.  ―  I have a question.
      [Taiwanese Hokkien]  ―  nn̄g ê lâng [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  two people
      屋企先生邊度 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
      屋企先生边度 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
      zyu6 hoeng2 nei5 uk1 kei5 go3 can4 sin1 saang1 hai6 bin1 dou6 jan4 lai4 gaa3? [Jyutping]
      Where is that Mr. Chan who lives at your house from?
    5. Classifier for hours and months.
      鐘頭钟头  ―  zhōngtóu  ―  one hour
        ―  jiǔ yuè  ―  nine months
      [Taiwanese Hokkien]  ―  saⁿ goe̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  three months
    6. Alternative classifier, for nouns having specific classifiers. Often colloquial and regional. Usage varies greatly between different topolects.
      學校学校  ―  xuéxiào  ―  one school
      [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 zeng2 [Jyutping]  ―  a well
      [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 fong4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  a room
    7. (Cantonese, Hakka, Teochew, Puxian Min, Wenzhou Wu Wu) Classifier for money: yuan, dollar; buck
      [Cantonese]  ―  saam1 go3 gau2 hou4 gau2 [Jyutping]  ―  three dollars and ninety-nine cents
      [Cantonese]  ―  baat3 go3 luk6 [Jyutping]  ―  eight dollars and sixty cents
      檸檬 [Cantonese, trad.]
      柠檬 [Cantonese, simp.]
      go3 bun3 sap6 zek3 ning4 mung4-1 [Jyutping]
      ten lemons for a dollar and a half
      [Sixian Hakka]  ―  sâm ke ngiùn [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  three dollars
      [Teochew]  ―  no6 geng1 ngou6 gai5 [Peng'im]  ―  two catties for five dollars
      [Teochew]  ―  gai5 ngeng5 san1 liab8 [Peng'im]  ―  three for a buck
    8. (Cantonese, slang) Classifier for money: ten thousand yuan, dollars, etc.
      [Cantonese]  ―  keoi5 caang1 jan4 sap6 go3. [Jyutping]  ―  He owes them a hundred grand.
    9. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and numbers, showing that the following numbers are approximate, not accurate.
      一下公里不在話下 [MSC, trad.]
      一下公里不在话下 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā yīxià pǎo liǎng sān gōnglǐ dōu bùzàihuàxià. [Pinyin]
      Running two or three kilometers in one go is a piece of cake for him.
      他們 [MSC, trad.]
      他们 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen liǎ jiù chà yī liǎng suì. [Pinyin]
      The age difference between them is only about one or two years.
    10. (Mandarin, Cantonese, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and its object or complement, adding a sense of ease, swiftness and one-offness to the action.
      休息休息 [MSC, trad.]
      休息休息 [MSC, simp.]
      chī fàn, xǐ ge zǎo, xiūxi xiūxi [Pinyin]
      have a meal, take a shower and have some rest
      我們昨天近況 [MSC, trad.]
      我们昨天近况 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen zuótiān jiàn le miàn, liáo le liáo jìnkuàng. [Pinyin]
      We met yesterday, and chatted about how we've been recently.
    11. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle used after (xiē).
      那些現在回憶起來還是記憶猶新 [MSC, trad.]
      那些现在回忆起来还是记忆犹新 [MSC, simp.]
      Nàxiē nián de shì xiànzài huíyì qǐlái háishì jìyìyóuxīn. [Pinyin]
      It feels like yesterday when I reminisce about those stories in the past.
    12. Particle between a verb and its complement.
        ―  chī ge gòu  ―  to eat enough
      不停不停  ―  máng ge bùtíng  ―  to be as busy as a bee
      痛快痛快  ―  chàng ge tòngkuài  ―  to sing to one’s heart’s content
    13. (dialectal Mandarin) Particle used in some time-related words.
      今兒今儿  ―  jīnrge  ―  (dialectal) today
    14. (literary or Wu, Xiang, Gan, dialectal Cantonese, dialectal Min) (= (Shanghainese)) this; that
      [Shanghainese]  ―  [ɡ̊əʔ¹¹ ɦəʔ³³  n̠ʲɪɲ²³] [IPA]  ―  this person
      鴨子 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      鸭子 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [ɡ̊əʔ¹¹ t͡sa̱ʔ³³  a̱ʔ³³ t͡sz̩⁴⁴ v̥əʔ¹¹ d̥a̱³³  sv̩ʷ⁵³] [IPA]
      This duck hasn't been cooked long enough for it to become tender.
    15. (Cantonese, Wu) Word-initial particle, serving as the definite article.
      今朝為啥 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      今朝为啥 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      Why hasn't that guy come today?
    16. (dialectal Cantonese, Hakka, Min Nan, Wu) Possessive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin (de).
      (ge3) (Cantonese); (kaq), (gheq) (Wu) (Mandarin influenced); (ê) (Hokkien)
      [Hokkien]  ―  góa ê chheh [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  my book
      [Teochew]  ―  ua2 gai7 ze1 [Peng'im]  ―  my book
      小囡小囡 [Shanghainese]  ―  [ŋv̩ʷ²³ ɦəʔ¹² ɕiɔ³³ nø⁴⁴] [IPA]  ―  my child
      客家精神客家精神 [Sixian Hakka]  ―  hak-kâ ke chîn-sṳ̀n [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  the Hakka spirit
    17. (dialectal) Sentence-final declarative, affirmative, or prohibitive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin (de), (le).
      標語 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      标语 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [piɔ⁵⁵ n̠ʲy²¹ v̥əʔ¹¹ z̥z̩²³ ŋv̩ʷ²³ ɕia̱³⁴ ɦəʔ¹²] [IPA]
      I didn't write that slogan.
      事體 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      事体 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      From: 2011, Hu Baotan, 弄堂
      [z̥z̩²² tʰi⁴⁴ lɔ³³  iɔ⁵⁵ ɦəʔ²¹] [IPA]
      It's quite an odd happenstance.
      1. (Cantonese, pronunciation spelling) Vowel harmony form of (ge3, “emphasis particle used at the end of declarative sentences”), pronounced as (go3) when followed by sentence final particles with vowel o, such as (wo3).
        [Cantonese]  ―  hai6 gam2 go3 wo3 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
    18. (often dialectal) Emphatic particle between a pronoun and a noun, usually to highlight some negative quality of the person.
      笨蛋笨蛋  ―  bèndàn!  ―  You idiot!
      [Cantonese]  ―  keoi5 go3 jan4 hou2 laan5. [Jyutping]  ―  He/she is such a sluggard.
    19. (Teochew) to be
      學生生日十月 [Teochew, trad.]
      学生生日十月 [Teochew, simp.]
      ua2 gai5 hag8 sêng1, ua2 gai7 sên1 rig8 gai5 zab8 ghuêh8 san1 ho7. [Peng'im]
      I am a student. My birthday is 3rd October.
      關西日本個,關中陝西 [Teochew, trad.]
      关西日本个,关中陕西 [Teochew, simp.]
      From: Forvo
      guang1 sai1 gai5 rig8 bung2 gai7, guang dong1 si6 siam2 sai1. [Peng'im]
      Kansai ("west of the pass") is in Japan; Guanzhong ("within the pass") is in Shaanxi.
      • 潮州個。 [Teochew, trad.]
        潮州个。 [Teochew, simp.]
        From: Based on 2011, Hui Ling Xu; Stephen Matthews, On the polyfunctionality and grammaticalization of the morpheme kai in the Chaozhou dialect, in Foong Ha Yap; Karen Grunow-Hårsta; Janick Wrona (eds.), Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and typological perspectives, page 121
        ua2 gai5 dio5 ziu1 lai5 gai7 [Peng'im]
        I come from Chaozhou. (i.e., It is Chaozhou that I come from.)
    20. (dated Shanghainese Wu) Used to indicate the past tense.
      我伲一直一家人家交易別人 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      我伲一直一家人家交易别人 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      From: 2010, Qian Nairong, 《從〈滬語便商〉所見的老上海話時態》 (Tenses and Aspects? Old Shanghainese as Found in the Book Huyu Bian Shang)
      We've been trading with your family, we haven't gone to any other families.

    Usage notesEdit

    • For Hokkien, Taiwan's Ministry of Education recommends for the general classifier ê and for the possessive particle ê, reserving for the month classifier .
    • For Hakka, Taiwan's Ministry of Education recommends for the possessive particle.
    • In Cantonese, when used for "yuan/dollar", is usually only used when followed by cents.
    • Northern Wu languages can mark for tenses, as well as aspects. In Old Shanghainese, this is used to mark the past tense, as opposed to a perfect aspect.

    SynonymsEdit

    See 個/derived terms § Chinese.

    CompoundsEdit

    See 個/derived terms § Chinese.

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ko)
    • Korean: (, gae)
    • Vietnamese: ()

    Others:

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ Douglas, Carstairs (1899), “dê”, in Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy, London: Presbyterian Church of England, page 99

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    • Go-on: (ka)
    • Kan-on: (ka)
    • Tō-on: (ko, Jōyō)

    CounterEdit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 5
    tōon

    () (-ko

    1. item, article, thing
      あの(えだ)(さくら)()(じゅう)()()だけあります
      Ano eda ni sakuranbo ga jūni-ko dake arimasu.
      There are only twelve cherries on that branch.

    Usage notesEdit

    This is one of the most common counter words in Japanese. It can be used to count small, round objects.

    See alsoEdit

    See Template:ja-number-counter:個.


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (nat gae))

    1. Hanja form? of (a piece).
    2. Hanja form? of (a unit).
    3. Hanja form? of (an item).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: , cái

    1. generic classifier

    ReferencesEdit