See also: and 𮊸
U+7FD2, 習
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7FD2

[U+7FD1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7FD3]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 124, +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 尸一竹日 (SMHA), four-corner 17602, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 956, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 28672
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1402, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3345, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+7FD2

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𮊸

Glyph originEdit

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (wings) + (sun) – to learn to fly, to practice flying.

In the current form, (, “sun”) has changed to (bái, “white”), so the present form is (wings) + (white).

Alternatively, the original form may have been a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ljub): phonetic (OC *sɢʷeds, *ɢʷeds, *sɢʷids) + semantic (sun).

EtymologyEdit

Two general semantic fields are found in the senses: "to flap the wings; to flutter" and "to practice". They are generally considered to be the same word, with the link being "to repeatedly flap the wings (in order to learn to fly)", a sense attested in Liji.

Area word:

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕi³⁵/
Harbin /ɕi²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕi⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕi⁴²/
Qingdao /si⁴²/
Zhengzhou /si⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕi²⁴/
Xining /ɕji²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕi¹³/
Lanzhou /ɕi¹³/
Ürümqi /ɕi²¹³/
Wuhan /ɕi²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕi³¹/
Guiyang /ɕi²¹/
Kunming /ɕi³¹/
Nanjing /siʔ⁵/
Hefei /ɕiəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ɕiʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕiəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ʑiɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ziəʔ³/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑiəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰi²²/
Tunxi /t͡sʰe¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /si²⁴/
Xiangtan /si²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sip̚⁵/
Taoyuan /sip̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sap̚²/
Nanning /t͡sɐp̚²²/
Hong Kong /t͡sap̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sip̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sip̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡sip̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (17)
Final () (141)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ziɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/zip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/zjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/zip̚/
Li
Rong
/ziəp̚/
Wang
Li
/zĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/zi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zap6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ zip ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-ɢʷəp/ (with root *ɢʷəp ‘wing’?)
English repeat; practice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13387
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ljub/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (obsolete) to flap (the wings); to flutter; to repeatedly flap the wings
  2. to practice; to exercise; to review
    /   ―  liàn  ―  to practice
  3. to study; to learn
    /   ―    ―  to learn martial arts
    /   ―    ―  to study by oneself
  4. to become familiar with; to be used to
    以為常 / 以为常  ―  yǐwéicháng  ―  to be used to something
    水性 / 水性  ―  shuǐxìng  ―  to not know how to swim
  5. habit; custom
    /   ―  guàn  ―  habit; custom
    /   ―  lòu  ―  bad habit
  6. (literary, obsolete) trusted follower
  7. often; frequently
    /   ―  jiàn  ―  to frequently see (something)
  8. a surname.
    /   ―  Jìnpíng  ―  Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しゅう) (shū)
  • Korean: (, seup)
  • Vietnamese: tập ()

Others:

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. learn

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 익힐 (ikhil seup))

  1. Hanja form? of (practice).

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: tập, chập, dập, giặp, tấp, xập, sập

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