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U+767D, 白
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-767D

[U+767C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+767E]
U+2F69, ⽩
KANGXI RADICAL WHITE

[U+2F68]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F6A]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 106, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹日 (HA), four-corner 26000, composition 丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #106, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 785, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22678
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1196, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2642, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+767D

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Unclear; probably a pictogram (象形) .

Guo (1954) suggests that it represents a thumb and is original form of (*mɯʔ) or, more probably, (*preːɡ).

Alternatively, Unger (apud Schuessler, 2007) suggests that it represents an acorn, noting its use in (oak) (= ) and (zào, acorn). In this interpretation, the meaning of “white” is derived from the color of an acorn's inside.

Etymology edit

STEDT derives it from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bawk (white), whence also Proto-Bodo-Garo *bok (white), Limbu (phô, white); also compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kɓɔɔk (white, grey).

However, Schuessler (2007) finds it difficult to reconcile these forms with Middle Chinese due to the lack of medial r. Instead, he proposes a derivation from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bar (white) with -k extension, thus cognate with (OC *baːl, “white”) (Wang, 1982), Mizo vâr ((to be) white), Proto-Karen *ʔ(b)wa (white).

Pronunciation edit


Note: bó - extremely limited in usage, sometimes used in the name Li Bai (李白).
Note:
  • pah7 - vernacular;
  • pet6 - literary (e.g. 明白).
Note:
  • bā, bà - vernacular;
  • bà̤ - literary.
Note:
  • băh - vernacular;
  • bĕk - literary.
Note:
  • pe̍h/pe̍eh - vernacular (“white; easy to understand; in vain; spoken lines; funeral; bland and tasteless; cooked with just water; greasy; jargon; surname”, used in most compounds);
  • pe̍k/pia̍k - literary (used in a few compounds).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pai³⁵/
Harbin /pai²⁴/
Tianjin /pai⁴⁵/
Jinan /pei²¹³/
Qingdao /pe⁴²/
Zhengzhou /pɛ⁴²/
Xi'an /pei²⁴/
Xining /pɨ²⁴/
Yinchuan /pia¹³/
/pɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /pə⁵³/
Ürümqi /pai⁵¹/
/pei⁵¹/
Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /pe³¹/
Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
Kunming /pə³¹/
Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pai¹¹/
/piəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /piʌʔ⁵³/ ~的
/pæ¹³/ ~菜
Hohhot /pɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /baʔ¹/
Suzhou /bɑʔ³/
Hangzhou /bɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /ba²¹³/
Hui Shexian /pʰɛ²²/
Tunxi /pʰa¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /pʰɑʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /pʰak̚⁵/
Taoyuan /pʰɑk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pak̚²/
Nanning /pak̚²²/
Hong Kong /pak̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /pik̚⁵/
/peʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /paʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /pa⁴⁴/
/pɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /peʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔbɔk̚⁵/
/ʔbɛ³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (3)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter baek
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/bak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/baɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/bɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/bɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bak6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bái
Middle
Chinese
‹ bæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*bˁrak/
English white

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 207
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*braːɡ/

Definitions edit

  1. white
      ―  bái  ―  white color
      ―  báichá  ―  white tea
  2. clear; easy to understand
      ―  míngbai'  ―  clear, obvious
      ―  qiǎnbái  ―  simple
  3. clear; pure; plain; blank
      ―  báizhǐ  ―  a blank sheet of paper
      ―  báijuǎn  ―  blank exam paper
      ―  báishuǐ  ―  plain water
      ―  báizhōu  ―  plain congee
  4. bright; well-lit
  5. eminent; prominent
  6. vernacular
      ―  báihuà  ―  spoken language
  7. dialect
      ―  bái  ―  Suzhou dialect
      ―  jīngbái  ―  Beijing dialect
  8. Short for 白讀白读 (báidú, “colloquial reading”).
  9. reactionary; anticommunist
      ―  báijūn  ―  The White army
      ―  bái  ―  The White area
    色恐怖  ―  báisèkǒngbù  ―  the White terror
  10. in vain; for nothing
    我們沒有我们没有  ―  Wǒmen méiyǒu bái máng.  ―  Our efforts were not in vain.
      ―  bái děng le.  ―  She waited in vain.
    他們沒有 [MSC, trad.]
    他们没有 [MSC, simp.]
    Tāmen de xuè méiyǒu bái liú. [Pinyin]
    Their blood was not shed in vain.
    所有工作 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Suǒyǒu de gōngzuò dōu bái zuò le. [Pinyin]
    All the work has been done for nothing.
    一趟一趟  ―  bái lái yītàng  ―  to come in vain; to come for nothing
    東西东西  ―  báigěi de dōngxi  ―  something given for nothing
  11. free of charge; gratuitous; gratis
    可以拿走蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
    可以拿走苹果 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ kěyǐ bái názǒu zhè xiē píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
    You can have these apples for free.
  12. to stare coldly; to stare at someone with the white of the eyes
    生氣一眼 [MSC, trad.]
    生气一眼 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shēngqì de bái le tā yīyǎn. [Pinyin]
    She gave him an angry stare.
  13. to explain; to present; to state
      ―  bái  ―  explain oneself, confess
    開場开场  ―  kāichǎngbái  ―  preamble
      ―  biǎobái  ―  to explain oneself
      ―  biànbái  ―  to explain, to defend oneself
  14. to mispronounce or wrongly write a character
    老是讀破句 [MSC, trad.]
    老是读破句 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ lǎoshì xiě bái zì dúpòjù. [Pinyin]
    I always mispronounce words and break my sentences up in the wrong places.
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ bǎ zhè zì niàn bái le. [Pinyin]
    I've mispronounced the character.
  15. spoken lines
      ―  niànbái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
      ―  dàobái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
      ―  bái  ―  monologue
      ―  duìbái  ―  dialogue
  16. funeral
    喜事喜事  ―  hóngbáixǐshì  ―  weddings and funerals
    [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-thiap [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  obituary
  17. (Hokkien) bland and tasteless
    𬲕 [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-chiáⁿ [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  bland and flavorless
  18. (Hokkien) cooked with just water without adding any seasoning
    [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-sa̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to cook with boiling water
  19. (Hokkien) greasy; with a lot of fat or oil
    [Hokkien]  ―  pe̍h-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  fatty meat
  20. (Hokkien) jargon; cant
    販仔贩仔 [Hokkien]  ―  hoàn-á-pe̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  merchant jargon
  21. (Mainland China Hokkien) frank speech
    [Hokkien]  ―  poa̍h-pe̍h [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to publicly disclose and get all the words and things clear in person
  22. a surname, commonly romanized as Bai
      ―  Bái Chóngxǐ  ―  Bai Chongxi
  23. (~族) Bai, an ethnic group living primarily in Yunnan, China

Synonyms edit

  • (in vain): (Min Nan)

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (はく) (haku)
  • Korean: 백(白) (baek)
  • Jeju: (bek)
  • Vietnamese: bạch ()

Others:

Compounds edit

See also edit

Colors in Chinese · 顏色颜色 (layout · text)
     白色      灰色      黑色
             紅色红色, 赤色; 緋紅色绯红色, 豔紅色艳红色, 大紅大红              橙色; 棕色, 褐色              黃色黄色; 奶油色
             青檸色青柠色              綠色绿色             
             青色; 深青色              湛藍色湛蓝色, 蔚藍色蔚蓝色, 天藍色天蓝色              藍色蓝色
             紫羅蘭色紫罗兰色; 靛色              洋紅色洋红色; 紫色              粉紅色粉红色

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
しろ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨siro1 → */sirʷo//ɕiro/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *siro.

The standalone apophonic form of shira below.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(しろ) (shiro

  1. the color white
    Coordinate term: (kuro, black)
  2. (by extension) innocence
    Coordinate term: (kuro, guilt)
  3. (go) a white go stone
  4. something unwritten
  5. (colloquial) the white team in a 紅白 (kōhaku) group
  6. (colloquial) an unlicensed prostitute
  7. (colloquial) Short for (shirogane): silver
  8. (colloquial) Synonym of (shio): salt
  9. (colloquial) Short for 白書院 (shiroshoin): a specific kind of drawing room or study, using unpainted cedar wood with straight grain
  10. a type of もつ焼き (motsuyaki) made from pig intestines
  11. in the game of 人狼 (Jinrō, Werewolf; Mafia), one who is on the villagers' side
    Antonym: (kuro)
    確定白(かくていしろ)確白(かくしろ)
    kakutei-shiro kakushiro
    one who is certainly on the villagers' side
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
しら
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨sira⟩/ɕira/

From Old Japanese.

The combining apophonic form of shiro above, mostly used in compounds.

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

(しら) (shira-

  1. Combining form of しろ (shiro) above:
    1. white
    2. undyed, unpainted, unseasoned, etc.
    3. pure
    4. innocent
    5. normal, unspecial
Derived terms edit

Adjective edit

(しら) (shira-na (adnominal (しら) (shira na), adverbial (しら) (shira ni))

  1. unapplied, undecorated; also the object that is unapplied or undecorated
  2. honest, serious; also the person who is honest or serious
  3. normal, unspecial; also the person who is normal or unspecial in position, occupation, or condition
Inflection edit
Idioms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
はく
Grade: 1
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC baek).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(はく) or (ハク) (haku

  1. the color white
  2. Short for 白人 (hakujin): an amateur
  3. a performer's lines
    Synonym: 台詞 (serifu)
  4. (mahjong) a white dragon tile
    Synonym: 白板 (paipan)
    Hypernym: 三元牌 (sangenpai)
  5. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of white dragon tiles, worth 1 (han, double)
    Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
Coordinate terms edit

Affix edit

(はく) (haku

  1. white
  2. colorless, dirtless, markless
  3. bright and clear
  4. humbly say
  5. sake cup
  6. Short for 白居易 (Haku Kyoi): Bai Juyi
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
びゃく
Grade: 1
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC baek).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the original borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Affix edit

(びゃく) (byaku

  1. white
Derived terms edit

See also edit

Colors in Japanese · (いろ) (iro) (layout · text)
     (しろ) (shiro)      (はい)(いろ) (haiiro),
(ねずみ)(いろ) (nezumiiro) (dated)
     (くろ) (kuro)
             (あか) (aka); (しん)() (shinku),
クリムゾン (kurimuzon),
(べに)(いろ) (beniiro),
(くれない)(いろ) (kurenaiiro),
(あかね)(いろ) (akaneiro)
             オレンジ (orenji),
(だいだい)(いろ) (daidaiiro); (ちゃ)(いろ) (chairo),
(かっ)(しょく) (kasshoku)
             ()(いろ) (kiiro); クリーム(いろ) (kurīmuiro)
             ()(みどり) (kimidori)              (みどり) (midori),
(あお) (ao) (dated)
             若緑(わかみどり) (wakamidori)
             シアン (shian); (かも)羽色(はねいろ) (kamo no hane iro)              (みず)(いろ) (mizuiro)              (あお) (ao)
             (すみれ)(いろ) (sumireiro); (あい)(いろ) (aiiro),
インジゴ (injigo)
             マゼンタ (mazenta),
赤紫(あかむらさき) (akamurasaki); (むらさき) (murasaki)
             ピンク (pinku),
(もも)(いろ) (momoiro)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC baek).

Hanja edit

(eumhun (huin baek))

  1. Hanja form? of (white).

(eumhun 아뢸 (aroel baek))

  1. Hanja form? of (tell, inform).

See also edit

Okinawan edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Japanese (shiro, white).

Noun edit

(しるー) (shirū

  1. white (color)
    くれー、(しるー)やいびーん。
    Kurē, shirū yaibīn.
    This is white.

References edit

  • Okinawan-English Wordbook (Mitsugu Sakihara)

Old Korean edit

Etymology edit

The first attested meaning is "to report to a superior", from which the generally honorific meaning developed, presumably via an intermediary circumlocutional construction which is not attested. The orthography is logogramic; see the Chinese entry's definitions, specifically “to explain; to present; to state”.

Verb edit

(*SOLPO-)

  1. to inform a superior; to report
  2. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the direct or indirect object of the main verb [from c. 865.]
  3. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the subject of the main verb
    Synonym: (*-si)
    • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Humane King Sutra:
      良中說法
      IP-akuy SYANG-i SYEL.PEP-ho-so(l)p-wo-l to-y
      In [honorable your] constant preaching of the Dharma from the mouth
      (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms.)

Descendants edit

  • Middle Korean: ᄉᆞᆲ다 (solpta, to report to a superior)
    • Early Modern Korean: ᄉᆞᆯ오다 (solwota, to report to a superior)
      • Korean: 사뢰다 (saroeda, to report to a superior)
    • Jeju: ᄉᆞᆯ루다 (sawlluda, to tell, speak to a superior)
  • Middle Korean: ᅀᆞᇦ (-zoW-, verbal honorific suffix for the direct or indirect object) (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop), 이전경 (Yi Jeon-gyeong), 하귀녀 (Ha Gwi-nyeo), 이용 (Yi Yong), 박진호 (Park Jin-ho), 김성주 (Kim Seong-ju), 장경준 (Jang Gyeong-jun), 서민욱 (Seo Min-uk), 이지영 (Yi Ji-yeong), 서형국 (Seo Hyeong-guk). (2009) 석독구결사전/釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Bakmunsa, →ISBN, pages 168—169
  • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2011) “古代韓國語의 謙讓法 助動詞 '白/ᄉᆞᆲ'과 '內/아'의 發達 [The development of the Old Korean humble auxiliary verbs '白 SOLP-' and '內 *A-']”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 26, pages 131–166

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: bạch ((bạc)(mạch)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: bạch[1][2][3], bạc[1][3], trắng[1]

  1. (only in compounds) chữ Hán form of bạch (white).
  2. Nôm form of bạc (silver).

Compounds edit

References edit

Zhuang edit

Verb edit

  1. Sawndip form of baeg (to be tired; to gasp)