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U+767D, 白
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-767D

[U+767C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+767E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 106, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹日 (HA), four-corner 26000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #106, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 785, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22678
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1196, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2642, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+767D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Unclear; probably a pictogram (象形).

Guo (1954) suggests that it represents a thumb and is original form of (OC *mɯʔ) or, more probably, (OC *preːɡ).

Alternatively, Unger (apud Schuessler, 2007) suggests that it represents an acorn, noting its use in (“oak”) (= ) and (“acorn”).

EtymologyEdit

STEDT derives it from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bawk (white), whence also Proto-Bodo-Garo *bok (white), Limbu [script needed] (phɔ, white); also compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kɓɔɔk (white, grey).

However, Schuessler (2007) finds it difficult to reconcile these forms with Middle Chinese due to the lack of medial r. Instead, he proposes a derivation from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bar (white) with -k extension, thus cognate with (OC *baːl, “white”) (Wang, 1982), Mizo vâr ((to be) white), Proto-Karen *ʔ(b)wa (white).

PronunciationEdit


Note: bó - extremely limited in usage, sometimes used in the name Li Bai (李白).
Note:
  • pah7 - vernacular;
  • pet6 - literary (e.g. 明白).
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • bā, bà - vernacular;
    • bà̤ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • băh - vernacular;
    • bĕk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • pe̍h/pe̍eh - vernacular (standalone and in most compounds, surname);
    • pe̍k/pia̍k - literary (in a few compounds).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pai³⁵/
    Harbin /pai²⁴/
    Tianjin /pai⁴⁵/
    Jinan /pei²¹³/
    Qingdao /pe⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /pɛ⁴²/
    Xi'an /pei²⁴/
    Xining /pɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /pia¹³/
    /pɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /pə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /pai⁵¹/
    /pei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /pe³¹/
    Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
    Kunming /pə³¹/
    Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pai¹¹/
    /piəʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /piʌʔ⁵³/ ~的
    /pæ¹³/ ~菜
    Hohhot /pɛ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /baʔ¹/
    Suzhou /bɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /bɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ba²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /pʰɛ²²/
    Tunxi /pʰa¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /pʰɑʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /pʰak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /pʰɑk̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pak̚²/
    Nanning /pak̚²²/
    Hong Kong /pak̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pik̚⁵/
    /peʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /paʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pa⁴⁴/
    /pɛ⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /peʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbɔk̚⁵/
    /ʔbɛ³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /baɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /bɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /bɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    bái
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*bˁrak/
    English white

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 207
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*braːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. white
        ―  bái  ―  white color
        ―  báichá  ―  white tea
    2. clear; easy to understand
        ―  míngbai  ―  clear, obvious
      /   ―  qiǎnbái  ―  simple
    3. clear; pure; plain; blank
      /   ―  báizhǐ  ―  a blank sheet of paper
        ―  báijuǎn  ―  blank exam paper
        ―  báishuǐ  ―  plain water
        ―  báizhōu  ―  plain congee
    4. bright; well-lit
    5. eminent; prominent
    6. vernacular
      /   ―  báihuà  ―  spoken language
    7. dialect
      /   ―  bái  ―  Suzhou dialect
        ―  jīngbái  ―  Beijing dialect
    8. Short for 白讀白读 (báidú, “colloquial reading”).
    9. reactionary; anticommunist
      /   ―  báijūn  ―  The White army
      /   ―  bái  ―  The White area
      色恐怖  ―  báisèkǒngbù  ―  the White terror
    10. in vain; for nothing
      我們沒有 / 我们没有  ―  Wǒmen méiyǒu bái máng.  ―  Our efforts were not in vain.
        ―  bái děng le.  ―  She waited in vain.
      他們沒有 [MSC, trad.]
      他们没有 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen de xuè méiyǒu bái liú. [Pinyin]
      Their blood was not shed in vain.
      所有工作 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Suǒyǒu de gōngzuò dōu bái zuò le. [Pinyin]
      All the work has been done for nothing.
      一趟 / 一趟  ―  bái lái yītàng  ―  to come in vain; to come for nothing
      東西 / 东西  ―  báigěi de dōngxi  ―  something given for nothing
    11. free of charge; gratuitous; gratis
      可以拿走蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
      可以拿走苹果 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ kěyǐ bái názǒu zhè xiē píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
      You can have these apples for free.
    12. to stare coldly; to stare at someone with the white of the eyes
      生氣一眼 [MSC, trad.]
      生气一眼 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā shēngqì de bái le tā yīyǎn. [Pinyin]
      She gave him an angry stare.
    13. to explain; to present; to state
        ―  bái  ―  explain oneself, confess
      開場 / 开场  ―  kāichǎngbái  ―  preamble
        ―  biǎobái  ―  to explain oneself
      /   ―  biànbái  ―  to explain, to defend oneself
    14. to mispronounce or wrongly write a character
      老是讀破句 [MSC, trad.]
      老是读破句 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ lǎoshì xiě bái zì dúpòjù. [Pinyin]
      I always mispronounce words and break my sentences up in the wrong places.
      /   ―  Wǒ bǎ zhè zì niàn bái le.  ―  I've mispronounced the character.
    15. spoken lines
        ―  niànbái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
        ―  dàobái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
      /   ―  bái  ―  monologue
      /   ―  duìbái  ―  dialogue
    16. funeral
      喜事 / 喜事  ―  hóngbáixǐshì  ―  weddings and funerals
    17. A surname​. Bai
    18. (~族) Bai, an ethnic group living primarily in Yunnan, China

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (はく) (haku)
    • Korean: (, baek)
    • Vietnamese: bạch ()

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Colors in Chinese · 顏色颜色 (yánsè) (layout · text)
         白色 (báisè)      灰色 (huīsè)      黑色 (hēisè)
                 紅色红色 (hóngsè), 紅色兒红色儿 (hóngshǎir), 赤色 (chìsè); 緋紅色绯红色, 豔紅色艳红色 (yànhóngsè)              橙色 (chéngsè); 棕色 (zōngsè), 褐色 (hèsè)              黃色黄色 (huángsè); 奶油色 (nǎiyóusè)
                 青檸色青柠色 (qīngníngsè)              綠色绿色 (lǜsè)             
                 青色 (qīngsè); 深青色              湛藍色湛蓝色, 蔚藍色蔚蓝色, 天藍色天蓝色 (tiānlánsè)              藍色蓝色 (lánsè)
                 紫羅蘭色紫罗兰色 (zǐluólán sè); 靛色 (diànsè)              洋紅色洋红色 (yánghóngsè); 紫色 (zǐsè)              粉紅色粉红色 (fěnhóngsè)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しろ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨siro1 → */sirʷo//ɕiro/

    From Old Japanese.

    The standalone apophonic form of shira below.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (しろ) (shiro

    1. the color white
    2. (by extension) innocence
    3. (go) a white go stone
    4. something unwritten
    5. (colloquial) the white team in a 紅白 (kōhaku) group
    6. (colloquial) an unlicensed prostitute
    7. (colloquial) Short for (shirogane): silver
    8. (colloquial) Synonym of (shio): salt
    9. (colloquial) Short for 白書院 (shiroshoin): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    10. a type of もつ焼き (motsuyaki) made from pig intestines
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しら
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨sira⟩/ɕira/

    From Old Japanese.

    The combining apophonic form of shiro above, mostly used in compounds.

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (しら) (shira-

    1. Combining form of しろ (shiro) above:
      1. white
      2. undyed, unpainted, unseasoned, etc.
      3. pure
      4. innocent
      5. normal, unspecial
    Derived termsEdit

    Adjectival nounEdit

    (しら) (shira-na (adnominal (しら) (shira na), adverbial (しら) (shira ni))

    1. unapplied, undecorated; also the object that is unapplied or undecorated
    2. honest, serious; also the person who is honest or serious
    3. normal, unspecial; also the person who is normal or unspecial in position, occupation, or condition
    InflectionEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はく
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠæk̚).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (はく) (haku

    1. the color white
    2. Short for 白人 (hakujin): an amateur
    3. a performer's lines
      Synonym: 台詞 (serifu)
    4. (mahjong) a white dragon tile
      Synonym: 白板 (paipan)
      Hypernym: 三元牌 (sangenpai)
    5. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of white dragon tiles, worth 1 (han, double)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Coordinate termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. white
    2. colorless, dirtless, markless
    3. bright and clear
    4. humbly say
    5. sake cup
    6. Lua error: not enough memory Bai Juyi
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    From Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory.

    The Lua error: not enough memory reading, so likely the original borrowing from Lua error: not enough memory.

    AffixEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. white
    Derived termsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    Colors in Lua error: not enough memory · Lua error: not enough memory (layout · text)
         Lua error: not enough memory      Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory
         Lua error: not enough memory
                 Lua error: not enough memory; Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory
                 Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory; Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory
                 Lua error: not enough memory; Lua error: not enough memory
                 Lua error: not enough memory              Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory
                
                 Lua error: not enough memory; Lua error: not enough memory              Lua error: not enough memory              Lua error: not enough memory
                 Lua error: not enough memory; Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory
                 Lua error: not enough memory; Lua error: not enough memory              Lua error: not enough memory,
    Lua error: not enough memory

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, Lua error: not enough memory (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, Lua error: not enough memory (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory

    Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. white

    HanjaEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. to tell, to inform

    See alsoEdit

    • Lua error: not enough memory

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory. (mainly used in compounds)
    2. Nôm form of Lua error: not enough memory.

    CompoundsEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    ReferencesEdit