See also: , , , , and
U+767D, 白
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-767D

[U+767C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+767E]
U+2F69, ⽩
KANGXI RADICAL WHITE

[U+2F68]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F6A]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 106, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹日 (HA), four-corner 26000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #106, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 785, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22678
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1196, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2642, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+767D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Unclear; probably a pictogram (象形).

Guo (1954) suggests that it represents a thumb and is original form of (OC *mɯʔ) or, more probably, (OC *preːɡ).

Alternatively, Unger (apud Schuessler, 2007) suggests that it represents an acorn, noting its use in (“oak”) (= ) and (“acorn”).

EtymologyEdit

STEDT derives it from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bawk (white), whence also Proto-Bodo-Garo *bok (white), Limbu (phô, white); also compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kɓɔɔk (white, grey).

However, Schuessler (2007) finds it difficult to reconcile these forms with Middle Chinese due to the lack of medial r. Instead, he proposes a derivation from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bar (white) with -k extension, thus cognate with (OC *baːl, “white”) (Wang, 1982), Mizo vâr ((to be) white), Proto-Karen *ʔ(b)wa (white).

PronunciationEdit


Note: bó - extremely limited in usage, sometimes used in the name Li Bai (李白).
Note:
  • pah7 - vernacular;
  • pet6 - literary (e.g. 明白).
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • bā, bà - vernacular;
    • bà̤ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • băh - vernacular;
    • bĕk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • pe̍h/pe̍eh - vernacular (standalone and in most compounds, surname);
    • pe̍k/pia̍k - literary (in a few compounds).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pai³⁵/
    Harbin /pai²⁴/
    Tianjin /pai⁴⁵/
    Jinan /pei²¹³/
    Qingdao /pe⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /pɛ⁴²/
    Xi'an /pei²⁴/
    Xining /pɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /pia¹³/
    /pɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /pə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /pai⁵¹/
    /pei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /pɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /pe³¹/
    Guiyang /pɛ²¹/
    Kunming /pə³¹/
    Nanjing /pəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /pɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pai¹¹/
    /piəʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /piʌʔ⁵³/ ~的
    /pæ¹³/ ~菜
    Hohhot /pɛ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /baʔ¹/
    Suzhou /bɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /bɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ba²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /pʰɛ²²/
    Tunxi /pʰa¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /pə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /pæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /pʰɑʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /pʰak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /pʰɑk̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pak̚²/
    Nanning /pak̚²²/
    Hong Kong /pak̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pik̚⁵/
    /peʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /paʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pa⁴⁴/
    /pɛ⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /peʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbɔk̚⁵/
    /ʔbɛ³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /baɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /bɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /bɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    bak6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    bái
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*bˁrak/
    English white

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 207
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*braːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. white
        ―  bái  ―  white color
        ―  báichá  ―  white tea
    2. clear; easy to understand
        ―  míngbai  ―  clear, obvious
      /   ―  qiǎnbái  ―  simple
    3. clear; pure; plain; blank
      /   ―  báizhǐ  ―  a blank sheet of paper
        ―  báijuǎn  ―  blank exam paper
        ―  báishuǐ  ―  plain water
        ―  báizhōu  ―  plain congee
    4. bright; well-lit
    5. eminent; prominent
    6. vernacular
      /   ―  báihuà  ―  spoken language
    7. dialect
      /   ―  bái  ―  Suzhou dialect
        ―  jīngbái  ―  Beijing dialect
    8. Short for 白讀白读 (báidú, “colloquial reading”).
    9. reactionary; anticommunist
      /   ―  báijūn  ―  The White army
      /   ―  bái  ―  The White area
      色恐怖  ―  báisèkǒngbù  ―  the White terror
    10. in vain; for nothing
      我們沒有 / 我们没有  ―  Wǒmen méiyǒu bái máng.  ―  Our efforts were not in vain.
        ―  bái děng le.  ―  She waited in vain.
      他們沒有 [MSC, trad.]
      他们没有 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen de xuè méiyǒu bái liú. [Pinyin]
      Their blood was not shed in vain.
      所有工作 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Suǒyǒu de gōngzuò dōu bái zuò le. [Pinyin]
      All the work has been done for nothing.
      一趟 / 一趟  ―  bái lái yītàng  ―  to come in vain; to come for nothing
      東西 / 东西  ―  báigěi de dōngxi  ―  something given for nothing
    11. free of charge; gratuitous; gratis
      可以拿走蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
      可以拿走苹果 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ kěyǐ bái názǒu zhè xiē píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
      You can have these apples for free.
    12. to stare coldly; to stare at someone with the white of the eyes
      生氣一眼 [MSC, trad.]
      生气一眼 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā shēngqì de bái le tā yīyǎn. [Pinyin]
      She gave him an angry stare.
    13. to explain; to present; to state
        ―  bái  ―  explain oneself, confess
      開場 / 开场  ―  kāichǎngbái  ―  preamble
        ―  biǎobái  ―  to explain oneself
      /   ―  biànbái  ―  to explain, to defend oneself
    14. to mispronounce or wrongly write a character
      老是讀破句 [MSC, trad.]
      老是读破句 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ lǎoshì xiě bái zì dúpòjù. [Pinyin]
      I always mispronounce words and break my sentences up in the wrong places.
      /   ―  Wǒ bǎ zhè zì niàn bái le.  ―  I've mispronounced the character.
    15. spoken lines
        ―  niànbái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
        ―  dàobái  ―  spoken parts of a Chinese opera
      /   ―  bái  ―  monologue
      /   ―  duìbái  ―  dialogue
    16. funeral
      喜事 / 喜事  ―  hóngbáixǐshì  ―  weddings and funerals
    17. A surname​. Bai
        ―  Bái Chóngxǐ  ―  Bai Chongxi
    18. (~族) Bai, an ethnic group living primarily in Yunnan, China

    SynonymsEdit

    • (in vain): (Min Nan)

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (はく) (haku)
    • Korean: (, baek)
    • Vietnamese: bạch ()

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しろ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨siro1 → */sirʷo//ɕiro/

    From Old Japanese.

    The standalone apophonic form of shira below.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (しろ) (shiro

    1. the color white
    2. (by extension) innocence
    3. (go) a white go stone
    4. something unwritten
    5. (colloquial) the white team in a 紅白 (kōhaku) group
    6. (colloquial) an unlicensed prostitute
    7. (colloquial) Short for (shirogane): silver
    8. (colloquial) Synonym of (shio): salt
    9. (colloquial) Short for 白書院 (shiroshoin): a specific kind of drawing room or study, using unpainted cedar wood with straight grain
    10. a type of もつ焼き (motsuyaki) made from pig intestines
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しら
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨sira⟩/ɕira/

    From Old Japanese.

    The combining apophonic form of shiro above, mostly used in compounds.

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (しら) (shira-

    1. Combining form of しろ (shiro) above:
      1. white
      2. undyed, unpainted, unseasoned, etc.
      3. pure
      4. innocent
      5. normal, unspecial
    Derived termsEdit

    Adjectival nounEdit

    (しら) (shira-na (adnominal (しら) (shira na), adverbial (しら) (shira ni))

    1. unapplied, undecorated; also the object that is unapplied or undecorated
    2. honest, serious; also the person who is honest or serious
    3. normal, unspecial; also the person who is normal or unspecial in position, occupation, or condition
    InflectionEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    はく
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠæk̚).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (はく) (haku

    1. the color white
    2. Short for 白人 (hakujin): an amateur
    3. a performer's lines
      Synonym: 台詞 (serifu)
    4. (mahjong) a white dragon tile
      Synonym: 白板 (paipan)
      Hypernym: 三元牌 (sangenpai)
    5. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of white dragon tiles, worth 1 (han, double)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Coordinate termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    (はく) (haku

    1. white
    2. colorless, dirtless, markless
    3. bright and clear
    4. humbly say
    5. sake cup
    6. Short for 白居易 (Haku Kyoi): Bai Juyi
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    びゃく
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠæk̚).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the original borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    AffixEdit

    (びゃく) (byaku

    1. white
    Derived termsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (huin baek))

    1. white

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 아뢸 (aroel baek))

    1. to tell, to inform

    See alsoEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (shiro, white).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana しるー, rōmaji shirū)

    1. white (color)
      くれー、 (しるー)やいびーん。
      Kurē, shirū yaibīn.
      This is white.

    ReferencesEdit

    • Okinawan-English Wordbook (Mitsugu Sakihara)

    Old KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    The first attested meaning is "to report to a superior", from which the generally honorific meaning developed, presumably via an intermediary circumlocutional construction which is not attested. The orthography is logogramic; see the Chinese entry's definitions, specifically “to explain; to present; to state”.

    VerbEdit

    (*SOLPO-)

    1. to inform a superior; to report
    2. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the direct or indirect object of the main verb [from c. 865.]
    3. an auxiliary verb or suffix honoring the subject of the main verb
      • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Humane King Sutra:
        良中說法
        IP-akuy SYANG-i SYEL.PEP-ho-so(l)p-wo-l to-y
        In [honorable your] constant preaching of the Dharma from the mouth
        (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms.)
      Synonym: (*-si)

    DescendantsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop), 이전경 (Yi Jeon-gyeong), 하귀녀 (Ha Gwi-nyeo), 이용 (Yi Yong), 박진호 (Park Jin-ho), 김성주 (Kim Seong-ju), 장경준 (Jang Gyeong-jun), 서민욱 (Seo Min-uk), 이지영 (Yi Ji-yeong), 서형국 (Seo Hyeong-guk). (2009) 석독구결사전/釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Bakmunsa, →ISBN, pages 168—169
    • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2011), “古代韓國語의 謙讓法 助動詞 '白/ᄉᆞᆲ'과 '內/아'의 發達 [The development of the Old Korean humble auxiliary verbs '白 SOLP-' and '內 *A-']”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 26, pages 131–166

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: bạch ((bạc)(mạch)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: bạch[1][2][3], bạc[1][3], trắng[1]

    1. (only in compounds) Hán tự form of bạch (white).
    2. Nôm form of bạc (silver).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    ZhuangEdit

    VerbEdit

    1. Sawndip form of baeg (to be tired; to gasp)