See also:
U+5E73, 平
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E73

[U+5E72]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E74]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 51, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一火十 (MFJ), four-corner 10409, composition(GHTJV) or ⿻(K))

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 339, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 646, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 407, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5E73

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠀒

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: peng4 - only in the sense "cheap".
Note: piang3 - only in the sense "cheap".
Note: piang2 - only in the sense "cheap".
Note: pîⁿ/pêⁿ, piâⁿ - vernacular, pêng - literary.
Note:
  • bên5 - vernacular;
  • pêng5 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pʰiŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /pʰiŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /pʰiŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /pʰiŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /pʰiŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /pʰiŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /pʰiŋ²⁴/
    Xining /pʰiə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /pʰiŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /pʰĩn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /pʰiŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /pʰin²¹³/
    Chengdu /pʰin³¹/
    Guiyang /pʰin²¹/
    Kunming /pʰĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /pʰin²⁴/
    Hefei /pʰin⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /pʰiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /pʰiŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /pʰĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /biŋ²³/
    Suzhou /bin¹³/
    Hangzhou /bin²¹³/
    Wenzhou /beŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /pʰiʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /pʰɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /pin¹³/
    Xiangtan /bin¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /pʰiɑŋ²⁴/
    /pʰin²⁴/ ~時
    Hakka Meixian /pʰin¹¹/ 和~
    /pʰiaŋ¹¹/ 唔~
    Taoyuan /pʰiɑŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pʰeŋ²¹/
    Nanning /pʰeŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /pʰiŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /piŋ³⁵/
    /pĩ³⁵/ ~~路
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /piŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /peiŋ²¹/ 太~
    /piaŋ³³/ ~均
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pʰeŋ⁵⁵/
    /pẽ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /feŋ³¹/
    /ʔbɛ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /biajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /biɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    píng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    píng píng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjæng › ‹ bjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*breŋ/ /*m-breŋ/
    English even (adj.) make even

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9818
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*beŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. level; even; flat
    2. even
    3. draw, tie
    4. to level
    5. calm; peaceful
    6. peace
    7. to pacify
    8. (used in placenames of conquered lands) pacified territory
    9. ordinary; common; mediocre; average
    10. (Cantonese, Hakka) cheap; inexpensive
    11. (historical) Short for 北平 (Běipíng).
    12. A surname​, number 95 of the Baijiaxing
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Tai: *biangᴬ (flat, even)

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (77)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /biᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /biɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /bjæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /bian/
    Li
    Rong
    /biɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯ɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    pián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    pián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjien ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[b]en/
    English distinguish; punctiious

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 9812
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    便
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ben/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (biàn).

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to control prices

    Pronunciation 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to shoot with a catapult; to pat; to beat; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    As an alternative form for :

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひら
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    ⟨pi1ra⟩/pʲira//ɸira//hira/

    Stem of adjective 平たい (hiratai). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (ひら) (hira

    1. something flat; flattened
    2. something ordinary, common, mediocre
    3. a person of low-ranking status
      1. a freshman
      2. a novice
      3. a private
    4. the top ridge of a roof parallel to the side of a building (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    5. Short for 平織 (hiraori, plain weave).
    6. in bookbinding, the flat part of a cover (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    7. Short for 平椀 (hirawan).
    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (ひら) (hira-

    1. single-minded (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
      connects to a noun

    Proper nounEdit

    (ひら) (Hira

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname​.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    たいら
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    ⟨tapi1ra⟩/tapʲira//taɸira//tawira//taira/

    Nominalization of adjective 平ら (taira, flat, level).

    NounEdit

    (たいら) (taira (historical kana たひら)

    1. a plain, flat (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

    Proper nounEdit

    (たいら) (Taira (historical kana たひら)

    1. a surname​, especially of those descended from imperial lineage ineligible for the Chrysanthemum Throne:
      1. the 桓武平氏 (Kanmu Heishi), from Emperor Kanmu
      2. the 仁明平氏 (Ninmyō Heishi), from Emperor Ninmyō
      3. the 文徳平氏 (Montoku Heishi), from Emperor Montoku, and
      4. the 光孝平氏 (Kōkō Heishi), from Emperor Kōkō
    2. a placename, especially in Iwaki city, Fukushima Prefecture
    3. a male given name
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    へい
    Grade: 3
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠiæŋ).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (へい) (hei

    1. something neither high nor low
    2. something calm

    AffixEdit

    (へい) (hei

    1. even, flat, level
    2. flatten, level
    3. uniform
    4. calm, gentle, peaceful
    5. common, ordinary, usual
    6. Short for 平氏 (Heishi) or 平家 (Heike): Taira clan
    7. (mathematics) square, square root
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (へい) (Hei

    1. a surname​.

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひょう
    Grade: 3
    kan’yōon

    /pʲau//ɸʲɔː//hʲoː/

    Possibly from Middle Chinese (MC bˠiæŋ).

    The 慣用音 (kan'yōon, literally commonly accepted sound) reading, a pronunciation in common usage based on a corruption of the Middle Chinese borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (ひょう) (hyō (historical kana ひやう)

    1. Short for 平韻 (hyōin): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    2. Short for 平調 (hyōjō): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    AffixEdit

    (ひょう) (hyō (historical kana ひやう)

    1. Short for 平声 (hyōshō): the level tone in Middle Chinese

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    びょう
    Grade: 3
    goon

    /bʲau//bʲɔː//bʲoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC bˠiæŋ).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    AffixEdit

    (びょう) (byō (historical kana びやう)

    1. impartial, unbiased

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical verb おさむ (osamu), modern おさめる (osameru, multiple definitions in kanji).

    Proper nounEdit

    (おさむ) (Osamu (historical kana をさむ)

    1. a surname​.
    2. a male given name (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical adjective 等し (hitoshi), modern 等しい (hitoshii, equal, same).

    Proper nounEdit

    (ひとし) (Hitoshi

    1. a surname​.
    2. a male given name

    Etymology 8Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical adjective 広し (hiroshi), modern 広い (hiroi, vast, wide).

    Proper nounEdit

    (ひろし) (Hiroshi

    1. a male given name

    Etymology 9Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical adjective 安し (yasushi), modern 安い (yasui, peaceful, quiet).

    Proper nounEdit

    (やすし) (Yasushi

    1. a male given name (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

    Etymology 10Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    nanori

    Nominalization of classical adjective 良し (yoshi), modern 良い (yoi, good, fine).

    Proper nounEdit

    (よし) (Yoshi

    1. a surname​.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (pyeong, pyeon) (hangeul , )

    1. (평평하다, pyeongpyeong-hada) to be flat, level, plane

    Derived termsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (bình, bằng, bường, biền)

    • This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    CompoundsEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    • Nôm: bình, bằng, bường

    ReferencesEdit

    • Thiều Chửu: Hán Việt Tự Điển, Hà Nội, 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Nom Foundation