See also:
U+5E73, 平
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E73

[U+5E72]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E74]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 51, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一火十 (MFJ), four-corner 10409, composition (GHTJV) or (K))

Derived characters edit

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 339, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 646, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 407, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5E73

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠀒
𠀭
𤔁

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(p/b)ljaŋ (plank; palm; flat surface; wing), whence Jingpho phun-pyen (phun⁵⁵ pjen³³, plank) and Burmese ပြန့် (pran., flat and even) (STEDT).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note: peng4 - only in the sense "cheap".
Note: piang3 - only in the sense "cheap".
Note: biâng - colloquial.
Note:
  • bàng - colloquial;
  • bìng - literary.
Note: pîⁿ/pêⁿ, piâⁿ - vernacular, pêng - literary.
Note:
  • bên5 - vernacular;
  • pêng5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰiŋ³⁵/
Harbin /pʰiŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /pʰiŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /pʰiŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /pʰiŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /pʰiŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /pʰiŋ²⁴/
Xining /pʰiə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /pʰiŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /pʰĩn⁵³/
Ürümqi /pʰiŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /pʰin²¹³/
Chengdu /pʰin³¹/
Guiyang /pʰin²¹/
Kunming /pʰĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /pʰin²⁴/
Hefei /pʰin⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pʰiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /pʰiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /pʰĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /biŋ²³/
Suzhou /bin¹³/
Hangzhou /bin²¹³/
Wenzhou /beŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /pʰiʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /pʰɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /pin¹³/
Xiangtan /bin¹²/
Gan Nanchang /pʰiɑŋ²⁴/
/pʰin²⁴/ ~時
Hakka Meixian /pʰin¹¹/ 和~
/pʰiaŋ¹¹/ 唔~
Taoyuan /pʰiɑŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pʰeŋ²¹/
Nanning /pʰeŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /pʰiŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /piŋ³⁵/
/pĩ³⁵/ ~~路
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /piŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /peiŋ²¹/ 太~
/piaŋ³³/ ~均
Shantou (Teochew) /pʰeŋ⁵⁵/
/pẽ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /feŋ³¹/
/ʔbɛ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (111)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter bjaeng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/biaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/biajŋ/
Li
Rong
/biɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/bĭɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯ɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
píng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ping4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
píng píng
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjæng › ‹ bjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*breŋ/ /*m-breŋ/
English even (adj.) make even

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9818
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*beŋ/

Definitions edit

  1. level; even; flat
      ―  píng fàng  ―  to put horizontally
      ―  píngyuán  ―  plain
    馬路马路  ―  Mǎlù hěn píng.  ―  The road is very flat.
  2. equal; fair
      ―  píngfēn  ―  to divide evenly
      ―  chípíng  ―  impartial
    Synonym: (jūn)
  3. equal
      ―  píngbèi  ―  same generation
      ―  píngpíngzuò  ―  to be on an equal footing
    世界紀錄世界纪录  ―  píng le shìjiè jìlù  ―  equalled a world record
    雙方双方  ―  Shuāngfāng dǎ chéng wǔ píng.  ―  They reached 5-5.
  4. to level; to make level
  5. calm; peaceful
    Synonyms: (wěn), (jìng)
      ―  tàipíng  ―  peaceful and tranquil
    浪靜浪静  ―  fēngpínglàngjìng  ―  to have no waves
    氣和气和  ―  xīnpíngqìhé  ―  even-tempered and good-humoured
  6. to calm down; to make peaceful; to quiet down
    民憤民愤  ―  píng mínfèn  ―  to assuage popular indignation
      ―  Nǐ xiān píng píng qì!  ―  Just calm down a bit first!
  7. to pacify
      ―  píngpàn  ―  to suppress a rebellion
  8. ordinary; common; mediocre; average
    Synonyms: (cháng),
    Antonyms: , ()
      ―  píng  ―  normal days
      ―  píngfán  ―  ordinary
      ―  píngmín  ―  civilian
  9. (Chinese phonetics) level tone (one of the four tones in Middle Chinese)
    上去入  ―  píngshǎngqùrù  ―  the four tones of Middle Chinese: level, rising, departing and checked
      ―  yángpíng  ―  light level tone
  10. (Cantonese, Hakka, Northern Min) cheap; inexpensive
    Antonym:
    機票机票 [Cantonese]  ―  peng4 gei1 piu3 [Jyutping]  ―  cheap air tickets
    [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    peng4 di1 dak1 m4 dak1 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Can it be cheaper?
    不如 [Cantonese, trad.]
    不如 [Cantonese, simp.]
    bat1 jyu4 peng4 peng4-2 dei6-2 maai6 bei2 ngo5 laa1. [Jyutping]
    What about selling it to me at a lower price?
  11. (Southern Min, Hakka) the same
    [Teochew, trad.]
    [Teochew, simp.]
    i1 gah4 ua2 bên5 guin5. [Peng'im]
    He is as tall as me.
  12. (historical) Short for 北平 (Běipíng).
    戰役战役  ―  Píng Jīn zhànyì  ―  Pingjin campaign
  13. Short for 平方米 (píngfāngmǐ, “square metre”). Used with numbers without classifiers.
  14. A surname, number 95 of the Baijiaxing
Synonyms edit
See also edit
The tones (of Chinese) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
平仄 (píngzè) (píng)
平聲平声 (píngshēng)
()
仄聲仄声 (zèshēng)
平上去入 (píngshǎngqùrù)
四聲四声 (sìshēng)
(píng)
平聲平声 (píngshēng)
(shǎng)
上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
()
去聲去声 (qùshēng)
()
入聲入声 (rùshēng)
標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
標調法标调法
四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜂◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜆
[Term?] ◌〪 ◌〫 ◌〬 ◌〭
傍點傍点 ◌〮 ◌〯
四聲八調四声八调 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng) 陽平阳平 (yángpíng) 陰上阴上 (yīnshǎng) 陽上阳上 (yángshǎng) 陰去阴去 (yīnqù) 陽去阳去 (yángqù) 陰入阴入 (yīnrù) 陽入阳入 (yángrù)
(yīn) (yáng)
標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
標調法标调法
四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇
The tones (of Standard Mandarin) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
四聲四声 (sìshēng) 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng)
一聲一声
陽平阳平 (yángpíng)
二聲二声 (èrshēng)
上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
三聲三声 (sānshēng)
去聲去声 (qùshēng)
四聲四声 (sìshēng)
輕聲轻声 (qīngshēng)

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (へい) (hei)
  • Korean: 평(平) (pyeong)
  • Vietnamese: bình ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2 edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter bjien
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/biᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/biɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/bjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bian/
Li
Rong
/biɛn/
Wang
Li
/bĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
pián
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
pin4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
pián
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjien ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]en/
English distinguish; punctiious

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9812
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
便
Old
Chinese
/*ben/

Definitions edit

  1. Alternative form of

Pronunciation 3 edit


Definitions edit

  1. (obsolete) to control prices

Pronunciation 4 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to shoot with a catapult; to pat; to beat; etc.”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

References edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1][2]

平󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
平󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

From Middle Chinese (MC bjaeng):

From Middle Chinese (MC bjien), as an alternative form for :

From native Japanese roots:

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
ひら
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

⟨pi1ra⟩/pʲira//ɸira//hira/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pira.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ひら) (hira

  1. something flat; flattened
  2. something ordinary, common, mediocre
  3. a person of low-ranking status
    1. a freshman
    2. a novice
    3. a private
  4. the top ridge of a roof parallel to the side of a building (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
  5. Short for 平織 (hiraori, plain weave).
  6. in bookbinding, the flat part of a cover (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
  7. Short for 平椀 (hirawan).
Derived terms edit

Prefix edit

(ひら) (hira-

  1. single-minded (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    connects to a noun

Proper noun edit

(ひら) (Hira

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
たいら
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

⟨tapi1ra⟩/tapʲira//taɸira//tawira//taira/

Nominalization of adjective 平ら (taira, flat, level).

Noun edit

(たいら) (tairaたひら (tafira)?

  1. a plain, flat (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

Proper noun edit

(たいら) (Tairaたひら (tafira)?

  1. a surname, especially of those descended from imperial lineage ineligible for the Chrysanthemum Throne:
    1. the 桓武平氏 (Kanmu Heishi), from Emperor Kanmu
    2. the 仁明平氏 (Ninmyō Heishi), from Emperor Ninmyō
    3. the 文徳平氏 (Montoku Heishi), from Emperor Montoku, and
    4. the 光孝平氏 (Kōkō Heishi), from Emperor Kōkō
  2. a placename, especially in Iwaki city, Fukushima Prefecture
  3. a male given name
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
へい
Grade: 3
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC bjaeng).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(へい) (hei

  1. something neither high nor low
  2. something calm

Affix edit

(へい) (hei

  1. even, flat, level
  2. flatten, level
  3. uniform
  4. calm, gentle, peaceful
  5. common, ordinary, usual
  6. Short for 平氏 (Heishi) or 平家 (Heike): Taira clan
  7. (mathematics) square, square root
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(へい) (Hei

  1. a surname

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
ひょう
Grade: 3
kan’yōon

/pʲau//ɸʲɔː//hʲoː/

Possibly from Middle Chinese (MC bjaeng).

The 慣用音 (kan'yōon, literally commonly accepted sound) reading, a pronunciation in common usage based on a corruption of the Middle Chinese borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ひょう) (hyōひやう (fyau)?

  1. Short for 平韻 (hyōin): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  2. Short for 平調 (hyōjō): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Affix edit

(ひょう) (hyōひやう (fyau)?

  1. Short for 平声 (hyōshō): the level tone in Middle Chinese

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
びょう
Grade: 3
goon

/bʲau//bʲɔː//bʲoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC bjaeng).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Affix edit

(びょう) (byōびやう (byau)?

  1. impartial, unbiased

Etymology 6 edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori

Nominalization of classical verb おさむ (osamu), modern おさめる (osameru, multiple definitions in kanji).

Proper noun edit

(おさむ) (Osamuをさむ (wosamu)?

  1. a surname
  2. a male given name (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

Etymology 7 edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori

Nominalization of classical adjective 等し (hitoshi), modern 等しい (hitoshii, equal, same).

Proper noun edit

(ひとし) (Hitoshi

  1. a surname
  2. a male given name

Etymology 8 edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori

Nominalization of classical adjective 広し (hiroshi), modern 広い (hiroi, vast, wide).

Proper noun edit

(ひろし) (Hiroshi

  1. a male given name

Etymology 9 edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori

Nominalization of classical adjective 安し (yasushi), modern 安い (yasui, peaceful, quiet).

Proper noun edit

(やすし) (Yasushi

  1. a male given name (Can we verify(+) this sense?)

Etymology 10 edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
nanori

Nominalization of classical adjective 良し (yoshi), modern 良い (yoi, good, fine).

Proper noun edit

(よし) (Yoshi

  1. a surname

References edit

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015–2024
  2. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 772 (paper), page 436 (digital)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 평평할 (pyeongpyeonghal pyeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (to be flat, level, plane).

Derived terms edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: bình[1][2][3][4][5], biền[5]
: Nôm readings: bình[1][2], bằng[1][2], bừng[1], bường[2]

  1. Chữ Hán form of bình (level, flat, peaceful (in compounds)).

Compounds edit

References edit