See also: , 𠆢, , and
U+5165, 入
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5165

[U+5164]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5166]
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TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 11, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人竹 (OH), four-corner 80000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #11, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 125, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 266, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 102, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5165

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) - an arrowhead indicating "to enter".

Compare (rén).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nup ~ nip. Cognate with Tibetan ནུབ (nub, to fall (gradually), sink, to set; to decay, to decline) and Burmese နိပ် (nip, to decline (e.g. price); to be suppressed, to settle, to be quelled).

Chinese characters belonging to the same word family include:

  • (OC *nuːb, “to make enter”)
  • (OC *nuːbs, “inside”)
  • (OC *nuːb, “reins on the inside of the horse”)
  • (OC *nuːms, *nuːb, *rnoːd, “to marry (a girl)”)
  • and potentially Cantonese (laap3, “to bring together, to collect”)

The regular Mandarin pronunciation as predicted from Middle Chinese is . The irregular sound change is for taboo reasons - to avoid homophony with its derived vulgar meaning "to enter > to have sexual intercourse", nowadays represented by ().

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ĭk - literary;
  • nĭk - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 5zeq - literary;
    • 5nyiq - vernacular.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐu⁵¹/
    Harbin /lu⁵³/
    /ʐu⁵³/
    Tianjin /iu⁵³/
    /ʐu⁵³/
    Jinan /lu²¹/
    Qingdao /y⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐu²⁴/
    Xi'an /vu²¹/
    Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʐu¹³/
    Lanzhou /vu¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʐu²¹³/
    /vu²¹³/
    Wuhan /y²¹³/
    Chengdu /zu³¹/
    Guiyang /zu²¹/
    Kunming /ʐu³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʐuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zuəʔ²/ 出~
    /zəʔ²/ ~怪
    Pingyao /zuʌʔ⁵³/
    /zz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Hohhot /ʐuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zai²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /y²²/
    Tunxi /ie¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /y²⁴/
    Xiangtan /y²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /lɨʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋip̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ŋip̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐp̚²/
    Nanning /jɐp̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jɐp̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lip̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /niʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ni⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
    /zip̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (141)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiɪp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵip̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjep̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵip̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiəp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭĕp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯əp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyip ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*n[u]p/
    English enter

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10885
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njub/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to enter; to go into
      Synonym: (jìn)
      Antonym: (chū)
    2. to join; to become a member of
        ―  jiā  ―  to join
    3. to accept; to admit
    4. to pay
    5. income
        ―  shōu  ―  income
      /   ―  suì  ―  annual income
    6. to confirm; to agree
    7. to conform (to)
    8. to arrive (at); to attain
    9. to go to imperial court
    10. to invade
    11. (telephony) to get through
      Synonym: (tōng)
    12. (Cantonese) inside
    13. (dialectal Mandarin, dialectal Wu, vulgar) to fuck; to have sexual intercourse
      Synonym: ()
    14. Short for 入聲入声 (rùshēng, “the checked tone”).

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Related termsEdit

    CounterEdit

    (しお) (-shio

    1. (archaic) counter for soakings (of fabric in a dye)

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (deul ip))

    1. enter
    2. come in (to), join

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: nhập[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: nhập[2][3], nhạp[3][4], nhấp[1], nhắp[1], vào[1], nhép[3], nhẹp[3]

    1. Hán tự form of nhập (to enter; to join).

    ReferencesEdit