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U+5165, 入
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5165

[U+5164]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5166]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 11, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人竹 (OH), four-corner 80000)

  1. Kangxi radical #11, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 125, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 266, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 102, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5165

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) - an arrowhead indicating "to enter".

Compare (rén).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nup ~ nip. Cognate with Tibetan ནུབ (nub, to fall (gradually), sink, to set; to decay, to decline) and Burmese နိပ် (nip, to decline (e.g. price); to be suppressed, to settle, to be quelled).

Chinese characters belonging to the same word family include:

  • (OC *nuːb, “to make enter”)
  • (OC *nuːbs, “inside”)
  • (OC *nuːb, “reins on the inside of the horse”)
  • (OC *nuːms, *nuːb, *rnoːd, “to marry (a girl)”)
  • and potentially Cantonese (laap3, “to bring together, to collect”)

The regular Mandarin pronunciation as predicted from Middle Chinese is . The irregular sound change is for taboo reasons - to avoid homophony with its derived vulgar meaning "to enter > to have sexual intercourse", nowadays represented by ().

PronunciationEdit


Note: 5nyiq - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐu⁵¹/
Harbin /lu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Tianjin /iu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Jinan /lu²¹/
Qingdao /y⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐu²⁴/
Xi'an /vu²¹/
Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐu¹³/
Lanzhou /vu¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐu²¹³/
/vu²¹³/
Wuhan /y²¹³/
Chengdu /zu³¹/
Guiyang /zu²¹/
Kunming /ʐu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐuʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐuəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zuəʔ²/ 出~
/zəʔ²/ ~怪
Pingyao /zuʌʔ⁵³/
/zz̩ʷ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐuəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /y²²/
Tunxi /ie¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /y²⁴/
Xiangtan /y²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /lɨʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋip̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋip̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐp̚²/
Nanning /jɐp̚²²/
Hong Kong /jɐp̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lip̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /niʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ni⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zip̚⁵/
/zip̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (141)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵip̚/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəp̚/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyip ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[u]p/
English enter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10885
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njub/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to enter; to go into
    Synonyms: (jìn)
    Antonyms: (chū)
  2. to join; to become a member of
      ―  jiā  ―  to join
  3. to accept; to admit
  4. to pay
  5. income
      ―  shōu  ―  income
    /   ―  suì  ―  annual income
  6. to confirm; to agree
  7. to conform (to)
  8. to arrive (at); to attain
  9. to go to imperial court
  10. to invade
  11. (telephony) to get through
    Synonyms: (tōng)
  12. (Cantonese) inside
  13. (dialectal Mandarin, dialectal Wu, vulgar) to fuck; to have sexual intercourse
  14. Short for 入聲入声 (rùshēng, “the checked tone”).

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Related termsEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana しお, rōmaji -shio)

  1. (archaic) counter for soakings (of fabric in a dye)

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ip)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: ip, McCune–Reischauer: ip)
    • Name (hangeul): (revised: deul)
  1. enter
  2. come in (to), join

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhập, nhạp, nhép, nhẹp)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit