See also:
U+6642, 時
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6642

[U+6641]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6643]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

Stroke order
 

(radical 72, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 日土木戈 (AGDI), four-corner 64041, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 494, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 859, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1505, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6642

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

𣅱

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djɯ): semantic  (sun; day) + phonetic  (OC *ljɯs).

In ancient scripts, it had the form , with (OC *tjɯ) as the phonetic instead.

EtymologyEdit

From (OC *tjɯ, “to go; to proceed”) + endopassive voicing + endoactive tone B (上聲), literally “that which is proceeding” (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /sz̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /sz̩²⁴/
Xining /sz̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /sz̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩¹¹/
Pingyao /sz̩¹³/
Hohhot /sz̩³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
Suzhou /zz̩ʷ¹³/
Hangzhou /zz̩²¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hui Shexian /sz̩⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕi⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃï¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /si²¹/
Nanning /si²¹/
Hong Kong /si²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /si³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /si⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /si⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑɨ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑie/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʑiə/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭə/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chí
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyi ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]ə/ (~ *[d]əʔ)
English time

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12042
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djɯ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. time; season
  2. seasonal
  3. hour; o’clock
  4. era; age; period
  5. opportunity; chance
  6. current; contemporary
  7. when; time when
    Usage note: it functions postpositively, whereas “when” in English functions prepositively.
  8. occasionally
  9. beautiful; good
  10. Alternative form of (shì, “this”).
  11. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ji)
  • Korean: (, si)
  • Vietnamese: thời (), thì ()

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
とき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling (rare)

⟨to2ki1 → */təkʲi//toki/

From Old Japanese. First cited to the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[1]

There are various theories regarding the ultimate derivation.

However, the sense of “unchanging” does not fit well with the sense of “the passing of time”. Separately, the phonetics of Old Japanese ⟨ki1/kʲi/ appear to contraindicate a fusion of /ko/ + /i/, which resulted in ⟨ki2/kʷi/ as seen at .
  • Possibly derived from or otherwise related to 疾し (toshi, sharp; happening quickly), cognate with 研ぐ (togu, to sharpen).
The Old Japanese phonetics of ⟨to2ki1 would match the attributive form of the adjective 疾し (toshi). However, the attributive form of adjectives was not generally used to derive nouns.
  • Possibly related to (toshi, year), which may also be cognate with 疾し (toshi, sharp; happening quickly).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(とき) (toki

  1. time
    (とき)(なが)toki no nagarethe flow of time
  2. an event, case, occasion, moment; a specific period in time
    (こま)った(とき)(わたし)(そう)(だん)してください。
    Komatta toki wa watashi ni sōdan shite kudasai.
    Please consult with me when troubled (in times of trouble).
  3. a time of something
  4. a season
  5. a tense
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

SuffixEdit

(どき) (-doki

  1. time of..., time for...

Proper nounEdit

(とき) (Toki

  1. a female given name

Further readingEdit

The toki entry at Gogen Allguide (in Japanese)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
goon

/ʑi//ʑi//d͡ʑi/

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨ).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [d͡ʑi]
  • The pitch accent depends on the entire appended word.

CounterEdit

() (-ji

  1. hour, o’clock
    ()(けい)()ると、ちょうど(じゅう)()()(さんじゅう)(よん)(ぷん)(ごじゅう)(ろく)(びょう)だった。
    Tokei o miru to, chōdo jūni-ji sanjūyon-pun gojūroku-byō datta.
    When I looked at the clock, it was just 12:34 and 56 seconds.
    • 1987 February 20 [Nov 15 1982], Murakami, Motoka, “(らん)()(ふたた)びの(まき) [Reunite with Ranko]”, in ()()()(けん) [Musashi’s Sword], volume 7 (fiction), 18th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 154:
      オラ、(なつ)()()()()(ろく)(がつ)(みっ)()()()()まれだから()()()‼まんずよろしく‼
      Ora, Natsuki Musashi! Rokugatsu mikka no yoji ni umare da kara Musashi‼ Manzu yoroshiku‼
      Mah name’s Natsuki Musashi! It’s Musashi because ah was born on June 3 at 4!! Nice to meet y’all!!
Derived termsEdit
Japanese number-counter combinations for () (ji)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 What time?
(れい)() (reiji) (いち)() (ichiji) ()() (niji) (さん)() (sanji) ()() (yoji) ()() (goji) (ろく)() (rokuji) (しち)() (shichiji)
(なな)() (nanaji)
(はち)() (hachiji) ()() (kuji) (じゅう)() (jūji) (じゅう)(いち)() (jūichiji) (じゅう)()() (jūniji) (なん)() (nanji)

SuffixEdit

() (-ji

  1. at the time of...

AffixEdit

() (ji

  1. time, moment
  2. at that time, chance, occasion
  3. hour, hourly
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
さだ
Grade: 2
Irregular

Either a sound shift from,[2] or cognate with,[1] Old Japanese しだ (sida → shida, time, circumstance).

  • ⟨sida⟩⟨sada⟩ → */saⁿda//sada/
or:
  • ⟨sada⟩ → */saⁿda//sada/

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(さだ) (sada

  1. (obsolete) Only used in 時過ぐ (sada sugu): to pass through the prime of life, grow old

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. ^ 1960, Tetsuo Hirayama (平山輝男, editor), 全国アクセント辞典 (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, Nationwide Accent Dictionary), (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (ttae si))

  1. Hanja form? of (time; hour; o’clock).
  2. Hanja form? of (season; seasonal).
  3. Hanja form? of (era; age; period).
  4. Hanja form? of (opportunity; chance).
  5. Hanja form? of (correct, right, excellent, great, good, nice, beautiful, fine, well).

Old JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Possibly a fusion of (to2ko2-, prefix for “always, unchanging) +‎ (i(1), nominalizing suffix). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

NounEdit

(to2ki1) (kana とき)

  1. a time, moment (in time), occasion
DescendantsEdit
  • Japanese: (toki)

Etymology 2Edit

Sound shift from しだ (sida, time, circumstance).[1]

NounEdit

(sada) (kana さだ)

  1. Only used in 時過ぐ (sada sugu): to pass through the prime of life, grow old
DescendantsEdit
  • Japanese: (sada)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thì), (thời)

  1. time