See also:
U+6642, 時
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6642

[U+6641]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6643]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

Stroke order
 

(Kangxi radical 72, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 日土木戈 (AGDI), four-corner 64041, composition )

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 494, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 859, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1505, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6642

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms


𣅱

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *djɯ) : semantic (sun; day) + phonetic (OC *ljɯs).

In ancient scripts, it had the form , with (OC *tjɯ) as the phonetic instead.

Etymology edit

From (OC *tjɯ, “to go; to proceed”) + endopassive voicing + endoactive tone B (OC * > expected MC 上聲), literally “that which is proceeding” (Schuessler, 2007). The glottal stop was however lost, probably due to confusion with the pronoun sense.

"this"
A relatively unemphatic form of (OC *djeʔ, “this”) (Pulleybank, 1995). Cognate with (OC *tjɯ, “this; third-person pronoun”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /sz̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /sz̩²⁴/
Xining /sz̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /sz̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩¹¹/
Pingyao /sz̩¹³/
Hohhot /sz̩³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
Suzhou /zz̩ʷ¹³/
Hangzhou /zz̩²¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hui Shexian /sz̩⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕi⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃï¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /si²¹/
Nanning /si²¹/
Hong Kong /si²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /si³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /si⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /si³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /si⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ti³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter dzyi
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑɨ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑie/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʑiə/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭə/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chí
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
si4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyi ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]ə/ (~ *[d]əʔ)
English time

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12042
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djɯ/

Definitions edit

  1. season
      ―  shí  ―  four seasons
      ―  nóngshí  ―  farming season
  2. time (a duration)
      ―  shí  ―  at that time
      ―  píngshí  ―  normally; usually
    上課不要手機 [MSC, trad.]
    上课不要手机 [MSC, simp.]
    Shàngkè shí bùyào wán shǒujī. [Pinyin]
    Don't use your phone when in class.
  3. time (the passing of time)
    沉寂沉寂  ―  chénjì duōshí  ―  to have remained silent for a long time
    不我待不我待  ―  shíbùwǒdài  ―  time does not wait for us
  4. times; years; era
      ―  shí  ―  ancient times
    移世易移世易  ―  shíyíshìyì  ―  times have changed and so have things
  5. time; fixed time
      ―  ànshí  ―  on time; on schedule
  6. double-hour
      ―  shí  ―  the hours of the rat (11:00pm to 1:00am)
  7. hour; o’clock (mainly in formal writing)
    Synonym: (diǎn)
    十五十五  ―  shí shíwǔ fēn  ―  8:15
  8. opportunity; chance
  9. current; contemporary
      ―  shíshì  ―  current affairs
      ―  shí  ―  current political situation
  10. that time
  11. occasionally; from time to time
      ―  shí kuài shí màn  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    發生发生  ―  shí yǒu fāshēng  ―  to happen from time to time
  12. (literary) timely
  13. (obsolete) beautiful; good
  14. (obsolete) this
  15. (grammar) tense
    過去过去  ―  guòqùshí  ―  past tense
  16. a surname

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ji)
  • Korean: 시(時) (si)
  • Vietnamese: thời (), thì ()

Others:

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
とき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(rare)

⟨to2ki1 → */təkʲi//toki/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *təki. First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

There are various theories regarding the ultimate derivation.

However, the sense of “unchanging” does not fit well with the sense of “the passing of time”. Separately, the phonetics of Old Japanese ⟨ki1/kʲi/ appear to contraindicate a fusion of /ko/ + /i/, which resulted in ⟨ki2/kʷi/ as seen at .
  • Possibly derived from or otherwise related to 疾し (toshi, sharp; happening quickly), cognate with 研ぐ (togu, to sharpen).
However, the historical spelling of toshi was to1(si), as in 那杼佐祁流 (nado1 sake1ru to1 me2, "why do you have knife cutting eyes").[2]
  • Possibly related to (toshi, year).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(とき) (toki

  1. time
    (とき)(なが)toki no nagarethe flow of time
    1. an event, case, occasion, moment; a specific period in time
      (こま)った(とき)(わたし)(そう)(だん)してください。
      Komatta toki wa watashi ni sōdan shite kudasai.
      Please consult with me when troubled (in times of trouble).
    2. a time of something
    3. (literary) the time during which a narrative takes place
      (とき)(ふゆ)
      toki wa fuyu
      It was winter, []
    4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      (とき)大統領(だいとうりょう)
      toki no daitōryō
      contemporary president; president at the time
  2. a season
  3. a tense
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

Suffix edit

(どき) (-doki

  1. time of..., time for...

Proper noun edit

(とき) (Toki

  1. a female given name

Further reading edit

  • 時/とき”, in 語源由来辞典 (Gogen Yurai Jiten, Etymology Derivation Dictionary) (in Japanese), 2003–2024.

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
goon

/ʑi//ʑi//d͡ʑi/

From Middle Chinese (MC dzyi).

Pronunciation edit

  • The pitch accent depends on the entire appended word.

Counter edit

() (-ji

  1. hour, o’clock
    ()(けい)()ると、ちょうど 12(じゅうに)() 34(さんじゅうよん)(ぷん) 56(ごじゅうろく)(びょう)だった。
    Tokei o miru to, chōdo jūni-ji sanjūyon-pun gojūroku-byō datta.
    When I looked at the clock, it was just 12:34 and 56 seconds.
    • 1987 February 20 [1982 November 15], Motoka Murakami, “(らん)()(ふたた)びの(まき)”, in ()()()(けん) (()()()(けん)), 18th edition, volume 7 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 154:
      オラ、(なつ)()()()()(ろく)(がつ)(みっ)()()()()まれだから()()()‼まんずよろしく‼
      Ora, Natsuki Musashi! Rokugatsu mikka no yoji ni umareda kara Musashi‼ Manzu yoroshiku‼
      Mah name’s Natsuki Musashi! It’s Musashi because ah was born on June 3 at four o'clock!! Nice to meet y’all!!
Derived terms edit
Japanese number-counter combinations for () (ji)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 What time?
(れい)() (reiji) (いち)() (ichiji) ()() (niji) (さん)() (sanji) ()() (yoji) ()() (goji) (ろく)() (rokuji) (しち)() (shichiji)
(なな)() (nanaji)
(はち)() (hachiji) ()() (kuji) (じゅう)() (jūji) (じゅう)(いち)() (jūichiji) (じゅう)()() (jūniji) (なん)() (nanji)

Suffix edit

() (-ji

  1. at the time of...

Affix edit

() (ji

  1. time, moment
  2. at that time, chance, occasion
  3. hour, hourly
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
さだ
Grade: 2
irregular

Either a sound shift from,[3] or cognate with,[7] Old Japanese しだ (sida → shida, time, circumstance).

  • ⟨sida⟩⟨sada⟩ → */saⁿda//sada/
or:
  • ⟨sada⟩ → */saⁿda//sada/

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(さだ) (sada

  1. (obsolete) Only used in 時過ぐ (sada sugu): to pass through the prime of life, grow old

References edit

  1. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN, page 493
  3. 3.0 3.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  6. ^ Hirayama, Teruo, editor (1960), 全国アクセント辞典 (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, Nationwide Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō, →ISBN
  7. ^ しだ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[2] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC dzyi).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (ttae si))

  1. Hanja form? of (time; hour; season).
  2. Hanja form? of (era; age; period).
  3. Hanja form? of (opportunity; chance).
  4. Hanja form? of (correct, right, excellent, great, good, nice, beautiful, fine, well).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Old Japanese edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Japonic *təki.

Noun edit

(to2ki1) (kana とき)

  1. a time, moment (in time), occasion
Descendants edit
  • Japanese: (toki)

Etymology 2 edit

Sound shift from しだ (sida, time, circumstance).[1]

Noun edit

(sada) (kana さだ)

  1. Only used in 時過ぐ (sada sugu): to pass through the prime of life, grow old
Descendants edit
  • Japanese: (sada)

References edit

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: thì, thời
: Nôm readings: thì, thời

  1. chữ Hán form of thời (time).
  2. chữ Hán form of thì (time).