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U+81E4, 臤
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-81E4

[U+81E3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+81E5]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 131, +2, 8 strokes, cangjie input 尸中水 (SLE), composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 999, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30070
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1450, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2802, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+81E4

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰaːn, *kʰriːn, *ɡiːn, *kʰins
*kʰriːn, *kʰiːn
*kʰriːn
*ɡriːn, *ɡriːns
*kiːn
*kiːn, *kiːns
*kiːn
*kʰiːnʔ
*kʰiːns, *kʰins
*ɡiːn
*ɡiːn, *ɢrin
*ɡiːnʔ
*kiŋs
*ɡiŋ
*ɡiŋ
*ɡjinʔ
*hŋiŋʔ
*kinʔ
*ŋɡriŋ
*kʰreːŋ
*kʰreːŋ
*kʰreːŋ

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Initial () (29) (29) (33) (29)
Final () (61) (73) (85) (44)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open Open
Division () I II IV Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰɑn/ /kʰˠɛn/ /ɦen/ /kʰˠiɪnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰɑn/ /kʰᵚæn/ /ɦen/ /kʰᵚinH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰɑn/ /kʰæn/ /ɣɛn/ /kʰienH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰan/ /kʰəɨn/ /ɦɛn/ /kʰjinH/
Li
Rong
/kʰɑn/ /kʰɛn/ /ɣen/ /kʰjĕnH/
Wang
Li
/kʰɑn/ /kʰæn/ /ɣien/ /kʰǐĕnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɑn/ /kʰăn/ /ɣien/ /kʰi̯ĕnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
kān qiān xián qìn
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
No. 1324 1326 1338 1348
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1 1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰaːn/ /*kʰriːn/ /*ɡiːn/ /*kʰins/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. firm and solid, rigid, stable

ReferencesEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“virtuous; good; clever; wise; worthy; able; capable”).
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. hard
  2. wise

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gan) (hangeul , revised gan, McCune–Reischauer kan, Yale kan)

  1. wise
  2. hard