U+5BD2, 寒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BD2

[U+5BD1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BD3]
See also:

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 40, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十廿金卜 (JTCY), four-corner 30303, composition𡨄)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 289, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7239
  • Dae Jaweon: page 572, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 941, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5BD2

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (house) + (person) + (grass) – a person in a house, sleeping in the grass to protect from the cold. In some bronze inscriptions, is added at the bottom of the character; this may simply be decorative or may represent a mat. In the seal script, is changed to (“ice”) to emphasize its meaning of coldness.

EtymologyEdit

Etymology unknown (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hàng - “cold; poor; to fear”;
  • gàng - “affected by the cold; chilled”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hân - literary;
    • kôaⁿ - vernacular;
    • gân - vernacular (俗).
    Note:
    • hang5 - literary;
    • guan5 - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hán
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hon4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ han ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.[ɡ]ˁa[n]/
    English cold

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4870
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. cold; wintry; chilly
    2. poor; poverty-stricken
    3. humble; petty and low
    4. desolate; deserted
    5. dreary; miserable
    6. withered; limp
    7. (humble) my
        ―  hánshè  ―  (one's own) humble home
    8. to feel cold
    9. to fear; to dread
    10. winter
    11. cold weather; cold day or night
    12. (traditional Chinese medicine) cold; chill
    13. (~日) (telegraphy) the fourteenth day of a month

    SynonymsEdit

    • (cold): (lěng)

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. cold

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 3
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑn).

    The basic cold sense as an affix is attested from some of the earliest texts in the 700s C.E..[1] Use as an independent noun is first attested in a text from roughly 900 C.E..[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (かん) (kan

    1. [from 700s] cold, chilly
    2. [from early 1800s] (by extension) poor, poverty-stricken
    3. [from 900s] midwinter, cold season

    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (かん) (kan

    1. [from circa 900] cold, coldness
    2. [from 1275] midwinter, cold season
      • a haiku by Matsuo Bashō:
        (かん)(ざけ)も (くう)()(やせ)も (かん)(うち)
        kanzake mo Kūya no yase mo kan no uchi
        Salted salmon too, also Kūya's thinning too, in the cold season

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑn). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: han) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (chal han))

    1. Hanja form? of (cold; chilly).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: hàn (()(can)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: hàn[1][2][4][6]

    1. Hán tự form of hàn (coldness).

    ReferencesEdit