See also:
U+53BB, 去
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53BB

[U+53BA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53BC]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 28, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 土戈 (GI), four-corner 40731, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 164, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3070
  • Dae Jaweon: page 372, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 384, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+53BB

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms


dialectal

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (man) + (mouth, object). Top figure simplified to , unrelated to (“scholar, gentleman”), while bottom simplified to . There are various interpretations of the combination of “man” and “mouth, object”. One is that the ideograph represented a man with a hole marked in his crotch, with the idea of “anus” (i.e. getting rid of) (Schuessler, 2007). Another is that it represented a man departing from a cave or city.

Alternatively, it may be the original character of (OC *kʰal, *kʰas, *kʰab, “to open one's mouth”), the meaning given by the combination of (“big”) and (“mouth”). The meaning “to depart” would be an extension of the meaning “to open one's mouth”, as the lips depart from each other when one's mouth is open.

Shuowen Jiezi interprets the character as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰaʔ, *kʰas): semantic (man) + phonetic 𠙴 ().

In addition, is also the original character of (OC *ɡaːb, “to cover”). The could be a cover on top of an object .

EtymologyEdit

There were two pronunciations in Middle Chinese. The rising tone pronunciation originally meant “to put away, to eliminate” (causative of “to go away”), and the falling tone “to go away, to leave, to depart” (anticausative). The merger of the two pronunciations already happened in Old Chinese and most extant dialects do not observe this distinction now.

This word is of Sino-Tibetan origin with the basic meaning of "to get rid of". Compare Tibetan སྐྱག (skyag, to spend, to lay out; dung, excrement), རྐྱག (rkyag, dirt, excrement), Burmese ကျ (kya., to fall, to become low), ချ (hkya., to put down, to bring down, to lower).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • qie4 - vernacular;
  • qu4 - literary.
  • (Dungan)
    (Note: Dungan pronunciation is currently experimental and may be inaccurate.)
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Note: ké̤ṳ - "departing tone".
    Note: khù - suburbs of Xiamen.
    Note:
    • ke3 - Chaozhou, Chenghai, Shantou, Jieyang, Pontianak;
    • ku3 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰy⁵¹/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰy⁵³/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰy⁵³/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰy²¹/
    /t͡ɕʰi²¹/ 過~
    Qingdao /t͡ɕʰy⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰy³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰy⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
    Yinchuan /kʰɯ¹³/
    /t͡ɕʰy¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰy¹³/
    /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
    /kʰɯ³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰy¹³/
    /t͡ɕʰie¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
    /kʰe²¹³/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰi²¹²/ ~年
    /kʰə²¹²/ ~大理
    Nanjing /kʰi⁴⁴/
    /t͡ɕʰy⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡sʰz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰy⁴⁵/ ~哪
    /kəʔ²/ 上~
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰy⁵⁵/ 來~
    /kəʔ⁴³/ 吃~
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
    /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕʰy⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰz̩ʷ⁴⁴⁵/
    /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy⁴²/
    /kʰei⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰy³²⁴/
    /t͡ɕʰi³²⁴/
    Tunxi /kʰə⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰy⁵⁵/
    /kʰə⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰie⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰie²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /hi⁵³/
    Taoyuan /kʰi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /høy³³/
    Nanning /hy³³/
    Hong Kong /høy³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰu²¹/
    /kʰi²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɔ²¹²/
    /kʰœ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰɯ²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hu³⁵/
    /xu³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰɨʌH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰiɔH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰiɔH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰɨə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰiɔH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰĭoH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰi̯woH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    heoi3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khjoH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ʰ(r)ap-s/
    English depart

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 10687
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰas/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to leave; to depart from
        ―  shì  ―  to pass away
    2. to go to; to leave for
      哪兒 / 哪儿  ―  nǎr?  ―  Where are you going?
      Antonym: (lái)
    3. (before or after a verb) to go in order to do something
      辦公室請假 [MSC, trad.]
      办公室请假 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā dào bàngōngshì qǐngjiǎ. [Pinyin]
      He went to the office to ask for leave.
      釣魚網球 [MSC, trad.]
      钓鱼网球 [MSC, simp.]
      diàoyú le, ér méi dǎ wǎngqiú. [Pinyin]
      He went fishing instead of playing tennis.
    4. (between two verbs) to; in order to
    5. Used after a verb of motion to indicate movement away from the speaker.
        ―  xià  ―  to go down [ant. 下來下来 (xiàlái, “to come down”)]
        ―  sòng   ―  to send away
    6. to send; to dispatch
    7. to play (a part, a character); to act
    8. (euphemistic) to pass away; to die
    9. last; past
        ―  nián  ―  last year
    10. 66th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "departure" (𝍇)
    11. Short for 去聲去声 (qùshēng).
    12. (literary) to be separated by; to be apart by
    13. (neologism) what the hell; what; damn; fuck
        ―    ―  what the hell
    SynonymsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note: heoi2 - rare.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    heoi2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khjoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[kʰ](r)aʔ/
    English get rid of

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 10684
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰaʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to remove; to get rid of
        ―  diào  ―  to remove
      /   ―  tuō  ―  to throw off
        ―  chāi  ―  to remove, to take off
      蝦腸 / 虾肠  ―  xiācháng  ―  to remove the intestines from shrimp
      牛肉腥味之後好食 [Cantonese, trad.]
      牛肉腥味之后好食 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ngau4 juk6 heoi3 zo2 di1 seng1 mei6 zi1 hau6 wui5 hou2 sik6 hou2 do1. [Jyutping]
      Beef tastes much better after you get rid of the rankness.
      白蝦 / 白虾  ―  tóu báixiā  ―  headless white shrimp
      中心化  ―  zhōngxīnhuà  ―  decentralization
    2. to discard

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to hoard, to hide away”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Pronunciation 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to run quickly; to expel; to disperse; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    The tones (of Chinese) in Chinese · 聲調 (layout · text)
    平仄
    平聲

    仄聲
    平上去入
    四聲
    古四聲

    平聲

    上聲

    去聲

    入聲
    標調方法
    標調法
    四角標調法 ꜀◌ ꜂◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜆
    [Term?] ◌〪 ◌〫 ◌〬 ◌〭
    [Term?] ◌〮 ◌〯
    -X -H -p -t -k (-ʔ)
    四聲八調 陰平 陽平 陰上 陽上 陰去 陽去 陰入 陽入
    標調方法
    標調法
    四角標調法 ꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇
    The tones (of Standard Mandarin) in Chinese · 聲調 (layout · text)
    四聲 陰平
    第一聲
    陽平
    第二聲
    上聲
    第三聲
    去聲
    第四聲
    輕聲

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to leave, to go away
    2. past

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (gal geo))

    1. Hanja form? of (to leave; to go away).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: khứ, khử[1], khu[2]

    1. (literary) Hán tự form of khứ (to leave, to go).
    2. Hán tự form of khử (to remove).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit