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gw u5143.svg
U+5143, 元
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5143

[U+5142]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5144]
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 10, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一一山 (MMU), four-corner 10211, composition or ⿱)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 123, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1340
  • Dae Jaweon: page 258, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 264, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5143

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a figure with two lines for a head (one connected to body, one above it), emphasizing the head.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nuang5 - Shantou;
  • nguêng5 - Chaozhou;
  • ngang5 - used in 開元.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /yan³⁵/
    Harbin /yan²⁴/
    Tianjin /yan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /yã⁴²/
    Qingdao /yã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /yan⁴²/
    Xi'an /yã²⁴/
    Xining /yã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /yan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /yɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /yan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /yɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /yan³¹/
    Guiyang /ian²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /yen²⁴/
    Hefei /yĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ye¹¹/
    Pingyao /ye̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ye³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵyø²³/
    /ɦyø²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiø¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦyõ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵy³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ue⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵyɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /yẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /yẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵyɵn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jyn²¹/
    Nanning /yn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jyn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /guan³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zuaŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (66)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋʉɐn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷiɐn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiuɐn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋuan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiuɐn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭwɐn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯wɐn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjwon ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]o[r]/ (< nasal + uvular)
    English head; first

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16145
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋon/

    Etymology 1Edit

    Possibly related to (OC *ŋʷan) "source, origin, basic, primary" and 黿 (OC *ŋoːn, *ŋon) "large turtle" (whose back-formation might be (OC *ŋaːw) "mythological turtle" with final -n discarded due to folk etymology) (Schuessler, 2007).

    Compare Proto-Tibeto-Burman *m~s-gaw (head). If so, cognate with (OC *ɡoːʔ, *ɡoːs) "ruler, lord (obsolete), queen"; Tibetan མགོ (mgo, head, summit, beginning) (⇒ མགོ.དཔོན (mgo.dpon, headman)), Garo sko  (skull), Northern Tujia kho⁵⁵ pa⁵⁵ (head) (STEDT, Schuessler, 2007).

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. head
    2. first; primary; head; chief
    3. basic; fundamental
    4. origin; source
    5. meta-
    6. Classifier for yuan or dollars.
    7. (mathematics) variable; unknown; element
        ―  xiāo yuán  ―  method of elimination (lit, "method of eliminating matrix elements")
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  lì tiānyuán [Pinyin]  ―  Let x be the unknown variable in the equation.
        ―  zhǔ yuán  ―  pivot
    8. (~朝) Yuan Dynasty
    9. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit
    See alsoEdit
    Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
    Name Time period Divisions
    Xia
    (~朝, ~代)
    2070 – 1600 BCE
    Shang
    (~朝, ~代)
    (~朝, ~代)
    1600 – 1046 BCE
    Zhou
    (~朝, ~代)
    1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
    西周
    Eastern Zhou
    東周东周
    Spring and Autumn period
    春秋
    Warring States period
    戰國战国
    Qin
    (~朝, ~代)
    221 – 206 BCE
    Han
    (~朝, ~代)
    206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
    西漢西汉
    Xin
    (~朝)
    Eastern Han
    東漢东汉
    Three Kingdoms
    三國三国
    220 – 280 CE Wei
    Shu
    Wu
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    265 – 420 CE Western Jin
    西晉西晋
    Eastern Jin
    東晉东晋
    Southern and Northern dynasties
    南北朝
    420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
    北朝
    Northern Wei
    北魏
    Western Wei
    西魏
    Eastern Wei
    東魏东魏
    Northern Zhou
    北周
    Northern Qi
    北齊北齐
    Southern dynasties
    南朝
    Liu Song
    劉宋刘宋
    Southern Qi
    南齊南齐
    Liang
    (~朝, ~代)
    Chen
    (~朝, ~代)
    Sui
    (~朝, ~代)
    581 – 618 CE
    Tang
    (~朝, ~代)
    618 – 907 CE
    Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
    五代十國五代十国
    907 – 960 CE
    Liao
    (~朝, ~代)
    907 – 1125 CE
    Song
    (~朝, ~代)
    960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
    北宋
    Southern Song
    南宋
    Western Xia
    西夏
    1038 – 1227 CE
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    1115 – 1234 CE
    Western Liao
    西遼西辽
    1124 – 1218 CE
    Yuan
    (~朝, ~代)
    1271 – 1368 CE
    Ming
    (~朝, ~代)
    1368 – 1644 CE
    Qing
    (~朝, ~代)
    1636 – 1912 CE

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Korean: (, won)
    • Vietnamese: nguyên ()

    Etymology 2Edit

    Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (はじめ) (Hajime).

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Hajime (a Japanese male given name)

    Etymology 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“circle; circular; round; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    もと
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Japonic *mətə. Cognate with Okinawan (mutu).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (もと) (moto

    1. cause, origin
    2. basis, foundation
    3. cost
      (もと)がとれる
      moto ga toreru
      to be able to cover the cost
    4. (finance) capital
    5. principal

    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (もと) (moto-

    1. former
      (もと)カレ(もと)カノ
      motokare, motokano
      former boyfriend, former girlfriend
      プロジェクト(もと)担当者(たんとうしゃ)田中(たなかし)
      purojekuto no moto tantōsha no Tanaka-shi
      former project manager Tanaka

    Etymology 2Edit

    From (はじ) (hajime, beginning).

    Proper nounEdit

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. A male given name

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 으뜸 (eutteum won))

    1. Chief

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    むとぅ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term
    むーとぅ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *moto, from Proto-Japonic *mətə. Cognate with mainland Japanese (moto).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana むとぅ, rōmaji mutu, alternative reading むーとぅ, rōmaji mūtu)

    1. cause, origin
    2. basis, foundation
    3. cost
    4. origin
    5. (finance) capital
    6. principal

    ReferencesEdit

    • ムトゥ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
    • ムートゥ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: nguyên, nguyễn

    1. source, origin, base
    2. a family name