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U+5143, 元
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5143

[U+5142]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5144]
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Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 10, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一一山 (MMU), four-corner 10211, composition or )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 123, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1340
  • Dae Jaweon: page 258, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 264, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5143

Further reading edit

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a figure with two lines for a head (one connected to body, one above it), emphasizing the head.

Etymology 1 edit

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-gaw (head), with a noun-forming suffix *-n (Schuessler, 2003; STEDT). If so, cognate with (OC *ɡoːʔ, “ruler; lord; queen”), Tibetan མགོ (mgo, head; summit; beginning), མགོན (mgon, protector; master; lord), Garo sko (skull), Northern Tujia kho⁵⁵ pa⁵⁵ (head) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT). (OC *ŋʷan, “source; origin; basic; primary”) and 黿 (OC *ŋoːn, *ŋon, “large turtle”) may be the same word (Schuessler, 2007). It may also be related to (OC *klun, “lord; prince; ruler”), (OC *ɢʷlinʔ, “magistrate; governor”), (OC *ɡoː, “marquis”) (Mei, 1985).

The name of the dynasty comes from the I Ching:

萬物 [Pre-Classical Chinese, trad.]
万物 [Pre-Classical Chinese, simp.]
From: I Ching, 11th – 8th century BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
Dà zāi qián yuán, wànwù zī shǐ, nǎi tǒng tiān. [Pinyin]
Vast is the ‘great and originating (power)’ indicated by Qian! All things owe to it their beginning: - it contains all the meaning belonging to (the name) heaven.

Part of the people with this surname are Xianbei descendants. It was changed from 拓跋 (Tuòbá) as ordered by Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • nyyon4 - vernacular;
  • yon4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • nguang5 - Shantou;
    • nguêng5 - Chaozhou;
    • ngang5 - used in 開元.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3nyoe - vernacular;
    • 3hhyoe - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /yan³⁵/
    Harbin /yan²⁴/
    Tianjin /yan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /yã⁴²/
    Qingdao /yã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /yan⁴²/
    Xi'an /yã²⁴/
    Xining /yã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /yan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /yɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /yan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /yɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /yan³¹/
    Guiyang /ian²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /yen²⁴/
    Hefei /yĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ye¹¹/
    Pingyao /ye̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ye³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵyø²³/
    /ɦyø²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiø¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦyõ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵy³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ue⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵyɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /yẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /yẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵyɵn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jyn²¹/
    Nanning /yn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jyn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /guan³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zuaŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (66)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter ngjwon
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋʉɐn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷiɐn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiuɐn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋuan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiuɐn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭwɐn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯wɐn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuán
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyun4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjwon ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]o[r]/ (< nasal + uvular)
    English head; first

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16145
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋon/

    Definitions edit

    1. head
    2. first; primary; head; chief
    3. basic; fundamental
    4. origin; source
      Synonym: (yuán)
    5. meta-
    6. Classifier for yuan or dollars.
      alt. forms: (yuán)
    7. (mathematics) variable; unknown; element
        ―  xiāoyuán  ―  method of elimination (literally, “method of eliminating matrix elements”)
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  lì tiānyuán [Pinyin]  ―  Let x be the unknown variable in the equation.
        ―  zhǔyuán  ―  pivot
    8. (mathematics) element (an infinitesimal interval of a quantity, a differential)
      线  ―  xiànyuán  ―  line element
    9. (~朝) Yuan Dynasty
        ―  yuán  ―  Yuan dynasty theater
    10. (~日) (telegraphy) the thirteenth day of a month
    11. a surname
        ―  Yuán Hàowèn  ―  Yuan Haowen (Jin dynasty poet)
    12. (Taoism) kalpa, a cosmic or supreme cycle of 129,000 years
    13. (Hong Kong) Short for 元朗 (Yuánlǎng, “Yuen Long”).
    Synonyms edit
    • (the Yuan dynasty):
    See also edit
    Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
    Name Time period Divisions
    Xia
    (~朝, ~代)
    2070 – 1600 BCE
    Shang
    (~朝, ~代)
    (~朝, ~代)
    1600 – 1046 BCE
    Zhou
    (~朝, ~代)
    1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
    西周
    Eastern Zhou
    東周东周
    Spring and Autumn period
    春秋
    Warring States period
    戰國战国
    Qin
    (~朝, ~代)
    221 – 206 BCE
    Han
    (~朝, ~代)
    206 BCE – 220 C.E. Western Han
    西漢西汉
    Xin
    (~朝)
    Eastern Han
    東漢东汉
    Three Kingdoms
    三國三国
    220 – 280 C.E. Wei
    Shu Han
    蜀漢蜀汉
    Wu
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    265 – 420 C.E. Western Jin
    西晉西晋
    Eastern Jin
    東晉东晋
    Southern and Northern dynasties
    南北朝
    420 – 589 C.E. Northern dynasties
    北朝
    Northern Wei
    北魏
    Western Wei
    西魏
    Eastern Wei
    東魏东魏
    Northern Zhou
    北周
    Northern Qi
    北齊北齐
    Southern dynasties
    南朝
    Liu Song
    劉宋刘宋
    Southern Qi
    南齊南齐
    Liang
    (~朝, ~代)
    Chen
    (~朝, ~代)
    Sui
    (~朝, ~代)
    581 – 618 C.E.
    Tang
    (~朝, ~代)
    618 – 907 C.E.
    Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
    五代十國五代十国
    907 – 960 C.E.
    Liao
    (~朝, ~代)
    907 – 1125 C.E.
    Song
    (~朝, ~代)
    960 – 1279 C.E. Northern Song
    北宋
    Southern Song
    南宋
    Western Xia
    西夏
    1038 – 1227 C.E.
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    1115 – 1234 C.E.
    Western Liao
    西遼西辽
    1124 – 1218 C.E.
    Yuan
    (~朝, ~代)
    1271 – 1368 C.E.
    Ming
    (~朝, ~代)
    1368 – 1644 C.E.
    Qing
    (~朝, ~代)
    1636 – 1912 C.E.

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Korean: 원(元) (won)
    • Vietnamese: nguyên ()
  • English: yuan
  • Etymology 2 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“circle; circular; round; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the draft (1955) first-round simplified and second-round simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    もと
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings



    ⟨mo2to2/moto/

    From Old Japanese. Cited to the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1] From Proto-Japonic *mətə. Cognate with Okinawan (mutu).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (もと) (moto

    1. cause, origin
    2. basis, foundation
    3. cost
      (もと)がとれる
      moto ga toreru
      to be able to cover the cost
    4. (finance) capital
      2000円(にせんえん)(もと)()
      nisen-en no moto o toru
      to get one's 2000 yen's worth
      (literally, “to take the 2000 yen principal”)
    5. principal

    Derived terms edit

    Prefix edit

    (もと) (moto-

    1. former, erstwhile
      (もと)カレ(もと)カノ
      motokare, motokano
      former boyfriend, former girlfriend
      プロジェクト(もと)(たん)(とう)(しゃ)()(なか)()
      purojekuto no moto tantōsha no Tanaka-shi
      former project manager Tanaka

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    げん
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From the Middle Chinese-derived reading of the kanji characters.

    Proper noun edit

    (げん) (Gen

    1. the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368)

    Noun edit

    (げん) (gen

    1. yuan (currency)
      Synonym: ユアン

    Etymology 3 edit

    From (はじ) (hajime, beginning).

    Pronunciation edit

    Proper noun edit

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. a male given name

    References edit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 으뜸 (eutteum won))

    1. Hanja form? of (chief).

    Okinawan edit

    Alternative forms edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    むとぅ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term
    むーとぅ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *moto, from Proto-Japonic *mətə. Cognate with mainland Japanese (moto).

    Noun edit

    (むとぅ) or (むーとぅ) (mutu or mūtu

    1. cause, origin
    2. basis, foundation
    3. cost
    4. origin
    5. (finance) capital
    6. principal

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: nguyên, nguyễn

    1. source, origin, base
    2. a family name