See also:
U+5805, 堅
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5805

[U+5804]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5806]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 32, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 尸水土 (SEG), four-corner 77104, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 232, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5210
  • Dae Jaweon: page 469, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 451, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5805

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kiːn): phonetic (OC *kʰaːn, *kʰriːn, *ɡiːn, *kʰins) + semantic .

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation edit


Note: giang1 - Shantou.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter ken
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ken/
Pan
Wuyun
/ken/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɛn/
Li
Rong
/ken/
Wang
Li
/kien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gin1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ ken ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁi[ŋ]/
English solid, strong

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1330
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kiːn/

Definitions edit

  1. hard
  2. strong; firm
  3. resolute
  4. (Cantonese) real; genuine
  5. (Cantonese) really; very
  6. 72nd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "hardness" (𝍍)

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms Quanzhou
Quanzhou

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Hokkien) to become dry and form a crust; to congeal

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. hard, firm
  2. tough
  3. strict

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Proper noun edit

(けん) (Ken

  1. a male given name

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 굳을 (gudeul gyeon))

  1. Hanja form? of (hard, stiff).

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: kiên

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.