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See also:
U+814E, 腎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-814E

[U+814D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+814F]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 130, +8 in Chinese, 肉+9 in Japanese, 12 strokes in Chinese, 13 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 尸水月 (SEB), four-corner 77227, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 987, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29621
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1439, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2086, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+814E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰaːn, *kʰriːn, *ɡiːn, *kʰins
*kʰriːn, *kʰiːn
*kʰriːn
*ɡriːn, *ɡriːns
*kiːn
*kiːn, *kiːns
*kiːn
*kʰiːnʔ
*kʰiːns, *kʰins
*ɡiːn
*ɡiːn, *ɢrin
*ɡiːnʔ
*kiŋs
*ɡiŋ
*ɡiŋ
*ɡjinʔ
*hŋiŋʔ
*kinʔ
*ŋɡriŋ
*kʰreːŋ
*kʰreːŋ
*kʰreːŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡjinʔ): phonetic  (OC *kʰaːn, *kʰriːn, *ɡiːn, *kʰins) + semantic  (meat; flesh) – a body part, the kidneys.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-k(j)un (kidney). Cognate with Burmese ကုန်း (kun:, back).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • san6 - literary (“kidney; testicle”);
  • san5, san5-2 - vernacular (“gizzard”).
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • sīn - literary;
    • siān/siǎn - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑiɪnX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑinX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑjenX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑinX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiĕnX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭĕnX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯ĕnX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shèn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shèn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyinX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.[ɡ]i[n]ʔ/
    English kidney

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1344
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡjinʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (anatomy) kidney
    2. (traditional Chinese medicine) testicle
    3. (Cantonese) gizzard
      / [Cantonese]  ―  gai1 san5 [Jyutping]  ―  chicken gizzard

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“kidney”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 腎水, 水藏
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , 腎臟
    Mandarin Beijing 腰子,
    Taiwan , 腰子
    Harbin
    Jinan 腰子,
    Muping 腰子,
    Luoyang
    Xi'an
    Xining
    Xuzhou 腰子,
    Yinchuan 腰子
    Lanzhou 腰子
    Ürümqi 腰子,
    Wuhan 腰子
    Chengdu 腎臟,
    Guiyang 腰子
    Yangzhou 腰子
    Nanjing 腰子
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Gan Lichuan 腰子
    Pingxiang 腰子
    Hakka Meixian
    Yudu 腰子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 腰仔, 腎家
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 腰仔, 腎家
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 腰仔, 腎家
    Dongshi (Dabu) , 腎家
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 腰仔, 腎家
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 腰子
    Huizhou Jixi 腰子
    Jin Taiyuan 腰子,
    Xinzhou 腰子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 腰仔
    Min Dong Fuzhou 腰子, 腰心子,
    Min Nan Xiamen 腰子
    Quanzhou 腰子
    Zhangzhou 腰子
    Taipei 腰子
    Kaohsiung 腰子
    Tainan 腰子
    Taichung 腰子
    Hsinchu 腰子
    Lukang 腰子
    Sanxia 腰子
    Yilan 腰子
    Kinmen 腰子
    Magong 腰子
    Penang 腰子
    Philippines (Manila) 腰子
    Haikou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 腰子, 腎臟
    Suzhou 腰子
    Hangzhou 腰子
    Chongming 腰子
    Danyang 腰子
    Jinhua 腰子
    Tangxi
    Ningbo , 腰子
    Xiang Loudi 腰子
    Dialectal synonyms of 睪丸 (“testicle”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 外腎,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 睪丸, 精巢
    Mandarin Beijing 卵子兒
    Harbin 卵子兒
    Jinan 球蛋
    Luoyang 蛋子兒,
    Wanrong
    Xi'an 蛋子兒
    Yinchuan 卵子
    Lanzhou 脬子兒,
    Ürümqi 脬卵子, 卵子
    Wuhan 卵子, 卵蛋, 卵坨
    Chengdu , 卵蛋, 蛋蛋, 卵子, 敲敲兒
    Guiyang 卵蛋
    Liuzhou 卵考子, 考子
    Yangzhou 卵蛋, 卵子子
    Nanjing 卵子
    Cantonese Hong Kong , 春子, 波子
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Kuala Lumpur 春仔
    Gan Lichuan 順子
    Pingxiang 卵坨子
    Hakka Meixian 核卵
    Yudu 卵子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 核卵
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 核卵
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 核卵
    Dongshi (Dabu) 核卵
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 核卵
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 核卵
    Hong Kong 核卵
    Sabah 核卵
    Senai
    Singkawang 核卵
    Huizhou Jixi 卵子
    Jin Xinzhou 蛋籽子
    Min Dong Fuzhou 𡳞核子
    Min Nan Xiamen 𡳞核, 腎子
    Quanzhou 𡳞核, 腎子
    Zhangzhou 𡳞核, 腎子
    Taipei 𡳞核, 𡳞脬核仔
    Kaohsiung 𡳞核, 𡳞核仔
    Tainan 𡳞核, 𡳞核仔
    Taichung 𡳞核仔
    Wuqi 𡳞核
    Hsinchu 𡳞核, 𡳞核仔
    Taitung 𡳞核仔
    Lukang 𡳞核, 𡳞核仔
    Sanxia 𡳞核
    Yilan 𡳞核
    Kinmen 𡳞核
    Magong 𡳞核
    Penang 𡳞核, , 𡳞脬子
    Shantou 𡳞核
    Haifeng 𡳞脬核
    Haikou 𡳞脬仁
    Leizhou 𡳞脬子, 𡳞脬核, 核子
    Pinghua Nanning 卵子
    Wu Shanghai 卵子
    Suzhou 卵子
    Hangzhou 卵子
    Wenzhou 卵子, 卵袋子, 陰袋子
    Danyang 卵脬黃, 卵子黃
    Jinhua 老核子
    Ningbo 卵黃, 卵袋黃
    Xiang Loudi 考子, 卵子

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    /murato1/ → /murato/.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana むらと, rōmaji murato)

    1. kidney

    Etymology 2Edit

    From earlier /murato/. Voicing suggests that it was originally a compound of mura and to.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana むらど, rōmaji murado)

    1. kidney
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 2, page 35-36:
        腎 白虎通云 時忍反 上聲之重 无良度 [...] 水之精也 色黑 [...] 水藏也 [...]

    Etymology 3Edit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    ReadingsEdit
    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (sin) (hangeul , revised sin, McCune–Reischauer sin, Yale sin)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (thận)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.