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See also:
U+934A, 鍊
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-934A

[U+9349]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+934B]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 167 +9, 17 strokes, cangjie input 金木田火 (CDWF), four-corner 85196, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1313, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40602
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1814, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4228, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+934A

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Small seal script
 
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn, *ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːn, *ɡ·raːnʔ, *ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːn
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·raːns
*ɡ·reːn
*kreːnʔ, *ɡ·reːns
*kreːnʔ
*kreːnʔ
*kraːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns
*ɡ·reːns

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·reːns): semantic  (metal) + phonetic  (OC *kreːnʔ).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms for figurative meanings

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lenH/
Pan
Wuyun
/lenH/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɛnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɛnH/
Li
Rong
/lenH/
Wang
Li
/lienH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lienH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ lenH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˤen-s/
English refine (metal)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6142
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·reːns/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to smelt; to refine
  2. (figuratively) to measure (one's words); to polish (one's wording)
  3. (figuratively) to temper; to steel; to cultivate
  4. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“chain”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ryeon>yeon) (hangeul >, revised ryeon>yeon, McCune-Reischauer ryŏn>yŏn, Yale lyen>yen)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

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