See also: , , and
U+91D1, 金
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91D1

[U+91D0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D2]
U+2FA6, ⾦
KANGXI RADICAL GOLD

[U+2FA5]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FA7]
U+F90A, 金
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F90A

[U+F909]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F90B]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 167, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input (C), four-corner 80109, composition 𫢉)

  1. Kangxi radical #167, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1295, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1795, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4167, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91D1

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
Chemical element
Au
Previous: () (Pt)
Next: (gǒng) (Hg)
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
 
Crystals of gold ( (jīn))

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *krɯm): semantic (upside-down axe) + semantic (two blocks of metal) + phonetic . is the ancient form for (OC *krɯm). Shuowen interprets it as an image of metal in the earth ('象金在土中形') with as phonetic.

Originally referred to copper. Later, the meaning was extended to metal as a whole, and then to gold.

Etymology edit

Starostin reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gǝ̆m (metal); compare Tedim Chin xam (gold) and Lepcha ᰀᰩᰮ (kóm, silver, coin, money).

“Copper” [prior to 5th BCE] > “metals in general” > “gold”.

The main senses now are “gold” and “metal”.

The surname also appears among Manchus and one of its sources is calque of Manchu ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ (aisin, gold) in ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ
ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ
(aisin gioro). Therefore, part of the Manchu people with this surname are descendants of the Qing imperial family.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • gim1 - Chaozhou, Shantou;
  • ging1 - Chenghai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕin⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕiẽ²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕiə̃²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕin²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕiẽ²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕin³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕin³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕaŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕin¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕin⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kim⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kim²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm⁵³/
    Nanning /kɐm⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kɐm⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kim⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /keiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kim³³/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /kim²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (140)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter kim
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kjim/
    Li
    Rong
    /kjəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gam1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k(r)[ə]m/
    English metal, bronze

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6679
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*krɯm/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. (obsolete) copper (Cu)
    2. metal
        ―  jīn  ―  alloy
    3. metalware
    4. gold (Au)
      顏色黃銅相似 [MSC, trad.]
      颜色黄铜相似 [MSC, simp.]
      Jīn de yánsè hé huángtóng hěn xiāngsì. [Pinyin]
      Gold is similar in color to brass.
    5. golden; blond
        ―  jīn  ―  blond
      獎勵一塊 [MSC, trad.]
      奖励一块 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā bèi jiǎnglì le yīkuài jīn biǎo. [Pinyin]
      He received a golden watch as a prize.
    6. (by extension) money; material wealth
        ―  xiànjīn  ―  cash
        ―  jīn  ―  funds
        ―  jīnqián  ―  currency
    7. (historical) ancient currency unit
    8. (historical) gong or other metalware for signalling commands in the military
      鼓齊鳴鼓齐鸣  ―  jīngǔqímíng  ―  the gongs and drums of war sound out in unison
    9. respectful; precious
      玉良言  ―  jīnyùliángyán  ―  precious advice
    10. Used in 金城 (jīnchéng).
      城湯池城汤池  ―  jīnchéngtāngchí  ―  strongly fortified city
    11. Short for 金星 (Jīnxīng, “Venus”).
    12. one of the eight kinds of instruments (八音 (-))
    13. metal, one of the five elements of Wu Xing (五行 (-))
    14. (Cantonese, cant) fire; flame
    15. (Cantonese, cant) roasted
      [Cantonese]  ―  gam1 zyu1 [Jyutping]  ―  roasted suckling pig
    16. (~朝) (historical) The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
    17. (~朝, ) (historical) Synonym of 後金后金 (Hòujīn), the Jurchen Later Jin state (1616–1636)
    18. a surname
        ―  Jīn Shèngtàn  ―  Jin Shengtan (Chinese literary critic)
        ―  Jīn Yàn  ―  Jin Yan (Chinese actor)

    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (きん) (kin)
    • Korean: 금(金) (geum), 김(金) (gim)
    • Vietnamese: kim ()

    Others:

    • Bouyei: jiml (gold)
    • Lao: ຄຳ (kham, gold)
    • Thai: คำ (kam, gold)
    • Zhuang: gim (gold)

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Chemical element
    Au
    Previous: (はっ)(きん) (hakkin) (Pt)
    Next: (すい)(ぎん) (suigin) (Hg)
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    (kane, kugane, kogane, kin): Synthetically produced crystalline gold.
     
    (kane, kana, kin): Metal in general, such as metal sheeting.
     
    (kane, kana, kin): Hot metal work from a blacksmith.
    1. gold
    2. metal

    Readings edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かな
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE with the phonetic man'yōgana spelling of 迦那 ⟨kana⟩. Appears to be the older form of this word. In modern Japanese, only found at the start of compounds.

    Pronunciation edit

    Prefix edit

    (かな) (kana-

    1. metal
      • 711–712, Kojiki:
        訓金云迦那
        read metal as kana
    2. money
    3. firmness, strength
    4. completely, entirely
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings


    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kanay. First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE with the phonetic man'yōgana spelling of 加尼 ⟨kane⟩.

    The four kanji spellings of this term, (“gold”), (silver), (copper), and (iron), hint at the importance of each of these four metals in ancient Japan.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かね) (kane

    1. money
      お金 (​okane)
    2. metal
      • 711–712, Kojiki:
        訓金云加尼
        read metal as kane
    Usage notes edit

    The spelling is the most common for this term.

    Synonyms edit
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    くがね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Compound of (ku, yellow) +‎ (kane, metal). The ku is a variation of regular kun'yomi of ki for the character.[3] The kane changes to gane as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Alternative forms edit

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (くがね) (kugane

    1. (archaic) gold

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    こがね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kuɡane//koɡane/

    Alteration of kugane,[3] possibly influenced by metaphor from 小金 (kogane, a small amount of money), or by the kan'on reading of for the character.

    Alternative forms edit

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (こがね) (kogane

    1. gold
    2. gold or metal currency: coins, such as 大判 (ōban) or 小判 (koban)
    3. short for 黄金色 (kogane iro, gold, the color)
    4. short for 黄金の泥 (kogane no dei, golden mud, gold dust suspended in an emulsion and used for painting or other decoration)
      金泥 (​kondei)
    See also edit

    Etymology 5 edit

    Kanji in this term
    きん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kim). Compare modern Mandarin (jīn).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (きん) (kin

    1. gold (Au)
    2. money
      (きん)(いっ)(ぷう)をもらった。
      Kin ippū o moratta.
      I received a gift of money.
    3. metal
    4. (shogi) short for 金将 (kinshō): the gold general (a shogi piece)
    5. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia
    6. short for 金曜日 (kin'yōbi): Friday
    Usage notes edit

    Often found in compounds.

    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (きん) (Kin

    1. Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

    Etymology 6 edit

    Kanji in this term
    こん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kim).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (こん) (kon

    1. metal, one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia

    Etymology 7 edit

    Kanji in this term
    きむ
    Grade: 1
    nanori

    From Korean (gim)

    Alternative forms edit

    Pronunciation edit

    Proper noun edit

    (キム) (kimu

    1. Kim, a surname from Korean

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kim).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: kùm)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 쇠〮 (Yale: swóy) (Yale: kùm)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (soe geum))

    1. Hanja form? of (gold; amount of money). [noun]
    2. Hanja form? of (money). [suffix]
    3. Hanja form? of (Short for 금요일(金曜日) (geumyoil, Friday).).
    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Most likely a borrowing from Early Mandarin (EM *kim) during Mongol rule in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.[1]

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 사람 성(姓) (saram-ui seong gim))

    1. Hanja form? of (a surname; used in placenames).
    Compounds edit

    References edit

    1. ^ 권인한 (2004), “성씨 김(金)의 한자음 연원을 찾아서”, in Sae Gugeo Saenghwal[1], volume 14, issue 4, pages 143—155
    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: kim[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: kim[1][2][4], ghim[3][5], câm[2], găm[3], ghim[4]

    1. chữ Hán form of kim (gold; metal).
    2. chữ Hán form of Kim (a surname from Chinese.).

    Compounds edit

    References edit