U+91D1, 金
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91D1

[U+91D0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D2]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (jīn) (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 167 +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 金 (C), four-corner 80109)

  1. Kangxi radical #167, (gold).

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1295, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1795, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4167, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91D1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠊍

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kɯːm, *kɯːms
*ŋɯːmʔ, *ŋ̥ʰrɯm, *ŋ̥ʰɯmʔ
*krɯm
*krɯmʔ
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯms
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯmʔ, *ŋɡrɯm
*ɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm
*ŋɡrɯmʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *krɯm): semantic (upside-down axe) + semantic (two blocks of metal) + phonetic . is the ancient form for (OC *krɯm).

EtymologyEdit

“Copper” [prior to 5th BCE] > “metals in general” > “gold”.

The main senses now are “gold” and “metal”.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕin⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕin²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕin²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiẽ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕin³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕin³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕaŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕin³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕin⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kim⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kim²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm⁵³/
Nanning /kɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /keiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kim³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kjim/
Li
Rong
/kjəm/
Wang
Li
/kĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jīn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kim ›
Old
Chinese
/*k(r)[ə]m/
English metal, bronze

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6679
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*krɯm/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. copper (Cu)
  2. metal
    •   ―  jīn  ―  alloy
  3. metalware
  4. gold (Au)
    /   ―  jīnshǔ  ―  metal
  5. golden; blond
  6. (by extension) money; material wealth
  7. (historical) ancient currency unit
  8. (historical) gong or other metalware for signalling commands in the military
  9. (figuratively) sun
  10. (figuratively) moon
  11. (figuratively) respectful; noble; rich
  12. (figuratively) impregnable
  13. (figuratively) imperial
  14. (figuratively, of voice) beautiful; wonderful
  15. Short for 金星 (Jīnxīng, “Venus”).
  16. Short for 金朝 (Jīncháo, “Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234)”).
  17. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • → Lao: ຄຳ(kham, gold)
  • → Thai: คำ(kam, gold)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Chemical element
Au Previous:  (はっ) (きん)(hakkin) (Pt)
Next:  (すい) (ぎん)(suigin) (Hg)
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(kane, kugane, kogane, kin): Synthetically produced crystalline gold.
 
(kane, kana, kin): Metal in general, such as metal sheeting.
 
(kane, kana, kin): Hot metal work from a blacksmith.
  1. gold
  2. metal

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かな
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form of this word. In modern Japanese, only found at the start of compounds.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana かな, romaji kana-)

  1. metal
  2. money
  3. firmness, strength
  4. completely, entirely
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
かね
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Appears to be a fusion of kana + Old Japanese emphatic nominal particle (​i). Compare the development of modern kami from kamu + i at , te from ta + i at , me from ma + i at , kaze from kaza + i at .

/kana/ + /i//*kanai//kane/

The four kanji spellings of this term, (“gold”), (silver), (copper), and (iron), hint at the importance of each of these four metals in ancient Japan.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana かね, romaji kane)

  1. money
    お金 (​okane)
  2. metal
Usage notesEdit

The spelling is the most common for this term.

SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
くがね
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of (ku, yellow) +‎ (kane, metal). The ku is a variation of regular kun'yomi of ki for the character.[3] The kane changes to gane as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana くがね, romaji kugane)

  1. (archaic) gold

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
こがね
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/kugane//kogane/

Alteration of kugane[3], possibly influenced by metaphor from 小金(kogane, a small amount of money), or by the kan'on reading of for the character.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana こがね, romaji kogane)

  1. gold
  2. gold or metal currency: coins, such as 大判(ōban) or 小判(koban)
  3. short for 黄金色(kogane iro, gold, the color)
  4. short for 黄金の泥(kogane no dei, golden mud, gold dust suspended in an emulsion and used for painting or other decoration)
    金泥 (​kondei)
See alsoEdit

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
きん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (/kim/). Compare modern Mandarin (jīn).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana きん, romaji kin)

  1. gold (Au)
  2. money
     (きん)一封 (いっぷう)をもらった。
    Kin ippū o moratta.
    I received a gift of money.
  3. metal
  4. (shogi) short for 金将(kinsho, the gold general, a shogi piece)
  5. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia
Usage notesEdit

Often found in compounds.

Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana きん, romaji Kin)

  1. Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
こん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (/kim/).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana こん, romaji kon)

  1. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gim, geum)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (revised: gim, geum, McCune-Reischauer: kim, kŭm, Yale: kim, kum)
  • Name (hangeul): ,  (revised: seong, soe, McCune-Reischauer: sŏng, soe, Yale: seng, soy)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

NounEdit

‎(geum) ‎(hangeul )

  1. gold
  2. (as an abbreviation) Friday

CompoundsEdit

Proper nounEdit

‎(Gim) ‎(hangeul )

  1. A surname​.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(kim, ghim, găm)

  1. Ancient word for brass
  2. gold (Au)
  3. money, currency
  4. The color yellow
  5. The Kim (Jin) dynasty (1115 - 1234)
  6. A surname