See also: and
U+91D1, 金
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91D1

[U+91D0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D2]
U+F90A, 金
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F90A

[U+F909]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F90B]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (jīn) (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 167, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 金 (C), four-corner 80109, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #167, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1295, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1795, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4167, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91D1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠊍
𨤾
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
 
金的晶體

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Originally referred to copper. Later, the meaning was extended to metal as a whole, and then to gold. Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *krɯm): semantic  (upside-down axe) + semantic  (two blocks of metal) + phonetic . is the ancient form for (OC *krɯm).

EtymologyEdit

Starostin reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gǝ̆m (metal); compare Tedim Chin xam (gold) and Lepcha [script needed] (kóm, silver, coin, money).

“Copper” [prior to 5th BCE] > “metals in general” > “gold”.

The main senses now are “gold” and “metal”.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • gim1 - Chaozhou;
  • ging1 - Chenghai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕin⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕiẽ²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕiə̃²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕin²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕiẽ²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕin³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕin³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕaŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕin¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕin⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kim⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kim²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm⁵³/
    Nanning /kɐm⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kɐm⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kim⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /keiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kim³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kim²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (140)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kjim/
    Li
    Rong
    /kjəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k(r)[ə]m/
    English metal, bronze

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6679
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*krɯm/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. copper (Cu)
    2. metal
        ―  jīn  ―  alloy
    3. metalware
    4. gold (Au)
      /   ―  jīnshǔ  ―  metal
      顏色黃銅相似 [MSC, trad.]
      颜色黄铜相似 [MSC, simp.]
      Jīn de yánsè hé huángtóng hěn xiāngsì. [Pinyin]
      Gold is similar in color to brass.
    5. golden; blond
      /   ―  jīn  ―  blond
      獎勵一塊 [MSC, trad.]
      奖励一块 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā bèi jiǎnglì le yīkuài jīn biǎo. [Pinyin]
      He received a golden watch as a prize.
    6. (by extension) money; material wealth
      /   ―  xiànjīn  ―  cash
      /   ―  jīn  ―  funds
      /   ―  jīnqián  ―  currency
    7. (historical) ancient currency unit
    8. (historical) gong or other metalware for signalling commands in the military
    9. (figuratively) sun
    10. (figuratively) moon
    11. (figuratively) respectful; noble; rich
    12. (figuratively) impregnable
    13. (figuratively) imperial
    14. (figuratively, of voice) beautiful; wonderful
    15. Short for 金星 (Jīnxīng, “Venus”).
    16. (~朝) (historical) The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
    17. (~朝, ) (historical) Synonym of 後金后金 (Hòujīn), the Jurchen Later Jin state (1616–1636)
    18. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (きん) (kin)
    • Korean: (, geum); (, gim)
    • Vietnamese: kim ()

    Others:

    • Bouyei: jiml (gold)
    • Lao: ຄຳ (kham, gold)
    • Thai: คำ (kam, gold)
    • Zhuang: gim (gold)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Chemical element
    Au
    Previous: (はっ)(きん) (hakkin) (Pt)
    Next: (すい)(ぎん) (suigin) (Hg)
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    (kane, kugane, kogane, kin): Synthetically produced crystalline gold.
     
    (kane, kana, kin): Metal in general, such as metal sheeting.
     
    (kane, kana, kin): Hot metal work from a blacksmith.
    1. gold
    2. metal

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かな
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Appears to be the older form of this word. In modern Japanese, only found at the start of compounds.

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (かな) (kana-

    1. metal
    2. money
    3. firmness, strength
    4. completely, entirely
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

    Appears to be a fusion of kana + Old Japanese emphatic nominal particle (​i). Compare the development of modern kami from kamu + i at , te from ta + i at , me from ma + i at , kaze from kaza + i at .

    /kana/ + /i//*kanai//kane/

    The four kanji spellings of this term, (“gold”), (silver), (copper), and (iron), hint at the importance of each of these four metals in ancient Japan.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (かね) (kane

    1. money
      お金 (​okane)
    2. metal
    Usage notesEdit

    The spelling is the most common for this term.

    SynonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くがね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Compound of (ku, yellow) +‎ (kane, metal). The ku is a variation of regular kun'yomi of ki for the character.[4] The kane changes to gane as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (くがね) (kugane

    1. (archaic) gold

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こがね
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kuɡane//koɡane/

    Alteration of kugane[4], possibly influenced by metaphor from 小金 (kogane, a small amount of money), or by the kan'on reading of for the character.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (こがね) (kogane

    1. gold
    2. gold or metal currency: coins, such as 大判 (ōban) or 小判 (koban)
    3. short for 黄金色 (kogane iro, gold, the color)
    4. short for 黄金の泥 (kogane no dei, golden mud, gold dust suspended in an emulsion and used for painting or other decoration)
      金泥 (​kondei)
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kim). Compare modern Mandarin (jīn).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (きん) (kin

    1. gold (Au)
    2. money
      (きん)一封(いっぷう)をもらった。
      Kin ippū o moratta.
      I received a gift of money.
    3. metal
    4. (shogi) short for 金将 (kinshō): the gold general (a shogi piece)
    5. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia
    6. short for 金曜日 (kin'yōbi): Friday
    Usage notesEdit

    Often found in compounds.

    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (きん) (Kin

    1. Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (kim).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (こん) (kon

    1. one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine: see the "Wu Xing" entry on Wikipedia

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3560), text here
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠiɪm). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: kum) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (soe geum))

    1. Hanja form? of (gold; metal; money).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 사람 (saramui seong gim))

    1. Hanja form? of (a surname; used in placenames).
    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: kim[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: kim[1][2][4], ghim[3][5], câm[2], găm[3], ghim[4]

    1. Hán tự form of kim (gold; metal).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit