AfarEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-tó

  1. Form of -ytó used after nouns ending in consonants.

DeclensionEdit

Declension of -tó
absolutive -tó
predicative -tó
subjective -tó
genitive -tó
Postpositioned forms
l-case -tól
k-case -tók
t-case -tót
h-case -tóh

ReferencesEdit

  • E. M. Parker; R. J. Hayward (1985) An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN, page 228
  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

BasqueEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Unknown, probably attested in Aquitanian *nescato.[1]

SuffixEdit

-to

  1. Diminutive suffix.
  2. (rare, non-productive) Augmentative suffix.
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Unknown.[2]

SuffixEdit

-to

  1. (Biscayan) Forms adverbs from adjectives.
    Synonym: -ki
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ -to [1]” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk
  2. ^ -to [2]” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk

Further readingEdit

  • -to” in Labayru Hiztegia

ChuukeseEdit

SuffixEdit

-to

  1. here; used to modify verb direction

Kalo Finnish RomaniEdit

SuffixEdit

-to

  1. Used to form ordinal numbers.

Usage notesEdit

The first two ordinal numbers have irregular forms in addition to the regular forms, iekto and duito: vaaguno and vauro. The third and fourth are somewhat irregular: tritto and startto instead of the expected *triinto and *staarto.


LatinEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Likely originally denominatives in formed from the past participle.

SuffixEdit

-tō (present infinitive -tāre, perfect active -tāvī, supine -tātum); first conjugation

  1. Forms frequentative verbs from existing verbs.
Usage notesEdit

The suffix uses the past participle/supine stem as the base, see the usage notes at -tus for more. It is not used for first conjugation verbs, the variant -itō appears there instead.

ConjugationEdit
   Conjugation of -tō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -tō -tās -tat -tāmus -tātis -tant
imperfect -tābam -tābās -tābat -tābāmus -tābātis -tābant
future -tābō -tābis -tābit -tābimus -tābitis -tābunt
perfect -tāvī -tāvistī -tāvit -tāvimus -tāvistis -tāvērunt,
-tāvēre
pluperfect -tāveram -tāverās -tāverat -tāverāmus -tāverātis -tāverant
future perfect -tāverō -tāveris -tāverit -tāverimus -tāveritis -tāverint
sigmatic future1 -tāssō -tāssis -tāssit -tāssimus -tāssitis -tāssint
passive present -tor -tāris,
-tāre
-tātur -tāmur -tāminī -tantur
imperfect -tābar -tābāris,
-tābāre
-tābātur -tābāmur -tābāminī -tābantur
future -tābor -tāberis,
-tābere
-tābitur -tābimur -tābiminī -tābuntur
perfect -tātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -tātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -tātus + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -tāssor -tāsseris -tāssitur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -tem -tēs -tet -tēmus -tētis -tent
imperfect -tārem -tārēs -tāret -tārēmus -tārētis -tārent
perfect -tāverim -tāverīs -tāverit -tāverīmus -tāverītis -tāverint
pluperfect -tāvissem -tāvissēs -tāvisset -tāvissēmus -tāvissētis -tāvissent
sigmatic aorist1 -tāssim -tāssīs -tāssīt -tāssīmus -tāssītis -tāssint
passive present -ter -tēris,
-tēre
-tētur -tēmur -tēminī -tentur
imperfect -tārer -tārēris,
-tārēre
-tārētur -tārēmur -tārēminī -tārentur
perfect -tātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -tātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -tā -tāte
future -tātō -tātō -tātōte -tantō
passive present -tāre -tāminī
future -tātor -tātor -tantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -tāre -tāvisse -tātūrum esse -tārī,
-tārier2
-tātum esse -tātum īrī
participles -tāns -tātūrus -tātus -tandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-tandī -tandō -tandum -tandō -tātum -tātū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been").
2The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

SuffixEdit

-tō

  1. masculine/neuter dative/ablative singular of -tus

MaquiritariEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (allomorph after i) -cho

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-to

  1. Forms the plural of nonpast tenses.
  2. Forms the plural of the recent past tense. (When used alone, forms the plural of the recent past perfective tense when the arguments of the verb are first- or second-person.)
  3. Forms the plural of the distant past tense when at least one of the arguments of the verb is third-person.
Usage notesEdit

This suffix can cause syllable reduction.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-to

  1. Allomorph of -ato (adverb/postposition nominalizing suffix) used after all vowels but e and i.

ReferencesEdit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “⸗to”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 124, 213–222

TaosEdit

PronunciationEdit

PostpositionEdit

-to

  1. in, within, on, at

Related termsEdit