Appendix:Proto-Niger-Congo numerals

Below is a comparison of Proto-Niger-Congo numerals and supporting reconstructions in lower-level Niger-Congo branches, many of which are tentative branch reconstructions by Tom Güldemann (2018: 142-145) and Pozdniakov (2018).

Güldemann (2018)Edit

OverviewEdit

The numerals are ‘two’, ‘three’, ‘four’, and ‘five’. Güldemann (2018: 147) reconstructs these forms for the numerals 2-5 in Proto-Niger-Congo.

  • *Ri ‘two’
  • *ta(C) ‘three’
  • *na(C) ‘four’
  • *nU ‘five’

However, Pozdniakov (2018: 293) reconstructs:

Numeral Proto-Niger-Congo
1 *ku-(n)-di (> ni/-in), *do, *gbo/kpo
2 *ba-di
3 *tat / *tath
4 *na(h)i
5 *tan, *nu(n)
6 5+1
7 5+2
8 *na(i)nai (< 4 reduplicated)
9 5+4
10 *pu / *fu
20 < ‘person’

Other lexemes used by Güldemann (2018) as Niger-Congo diagnostic forms (i.e., to determine whether or not a language should be classified as Niger-Congo) are:

  • ‘person/people’
  • ‘tongue’
  • noun class *1 prefix for human singular
  • noun class *2 prefix for human plural
  • noun class *6A prefix for liquid and mass nouns ("uncountables")
  • the first and second person pronouns (both singular and plural); Güldemann's (2018) Proto-Niger-Congo pronoun reconstructions are below:
sg. pl.
1 *mVfront *TVclose
2 *mVback *NVclose

Numerals 2-5Edit

Lineage code Lineage ‘two’ ‘three’ ‘four’ ‘five’ Source
- Niger-Congo *Ri *ta(C) *na(C) *nU Güldemann (2018: 147)
(U6.A) Bantoid: Bantu *-bV.di *-tá.tu *-na.i̦ *-táa.no Meeussen (1967: 105)
(U6.A) Bantoid: Jarawan *-ba.ri *-ta.tu *-n(E) Gerhardt (1982: 94, 84)
(U6.A) Bantoid: Ekoid *-ba.(l) *-Tá(a) *-nE *-Tɔ̂.n Crabb (1965: 68–69, 97, 99)
(U6.A) Bantoid: Mambiloid *Ba *ta.R *na *tV.n Connell (2010)
(U6.B) Cross River: Upper *-ppán- *ttá.DN *-nà.(ŋ)i *tá.ǹ(ò) Dimmendaal (1978: 243, 267, 273, 312)
(U6.B) Cross River: Lower *-bà *-tá *-nǐàŋ *-tíò.n Connell (1991: 340–341)
(U6.C) Kainji-Platoid: Ninzic *-pah *-ta.t *-na.s *-tó.ŋ Gerhardt (1983a: 144, 153)
(U6.C) Kainji-Platoid: Central Jukunoid *-pan *-ta.r *(-)NE.(n) *-to.n Shimizu (1980,2: 1, 51–52, 108, 61–62); Storch (1999: 373)
U6.D Igboid *-bʊ̀ wá *-tɔ́ *-nɔ̀ *-tõ̂ Williamson, Blench, and Ohiri-Aniche (2013: series 551–554)
U6.E Idomoid *-pà *-tā *-nE *-rūɔ̄ Armstrong (1983: 111, 116–118, 121)
U6.F Nupoid *-ba *-ta *-nV *-tu.(N) Blench (2013d: 133–135)
U6.G Edoid *-və *-cha.Gɪ *-niə *-chi.Nə.nhi Elugbe (1986: 150, 153, 211, 228)
U6.H Akpes *-di.aN *-sa.s *-ni.(N) Ibrahim-Arirabiyi (1989: 33, 35)
U6.I Ukaan *wà *tá.ɾV *ná̃.hí̃ *tʃʊ̀̃.nṼ Abiodun (1999: 331)
U6.J Oko -bò.rè ̣ -ta -na u-pi Atoyebi (2010: 150)
U6.K Owon-Arigidi *-ji *-da *-nɛ *-tṼ Fadoro (2010: 90)
U6.L Ayere-Ahan *-ji *-ta *-rEn *-(n)tu Blench (2007b: 15); Ogunmodimu (2015: 66)
U6.M Yoruboid *-jì *-ta *-rɪ̃ *-rɷ̃á̃ Akinkugbe (1978: 480, 590, 614, 666)
U6.N Gbe *-’bè *-tɔ̀̃ *-nɛ̄ ̃ *à.tɔ́̃ Capo (1990: 66–67); Kluge (2000: 141–143)
(U6.O) Ghana-T.-M.: Ka-Togo ? *-ta *-nV *-to.(N) Heine (1968: 236–237, 245, 248)
(U6.O) Ghana-T.-M.: Na-Togo *-NO *-tE *-na *-(to).no Heine (1968: 236–238, 245, 248)
U6.P Potou-Akanic *(-)ɲɔ̃ *-tã *-nã Stewart (1993: 28, 35, 37; 2002: 215, 223)
U6.Q Ga-Dangme *-nyɔ̰̄ *-tɛ̰̄ *JwE *-nṵ̄.mɔ̰̄ Kropp Dakubu (2006: 46, 54)
U6.R Lagoon: Abe a.ñɔ̃ a.re a.lɛ o.ni Dumestre et al. (1971: 270–271)
U6.S Ega -ɲɔ̀ -tà -lɛ̀ -ŋwè Blench (2004b: 11)
U7 Dakoid *ba.ra *ta.ra *na.sa *tO.(ŋ)o.na Boyd (1989b: 170)
U8 Ijoid *ma̰a̰-mV̰ *taa.tʊ *-no̰.ḭ *tʊ.ŋʊ̰.r̰ɔ̰ Williamson (2004b: 14, 33, 35)
U9.A Kru *sO/sÕ *ta/tã *(-)na/ɲiɛ ? Marchese (1983: 399–400)
U9.B Siamou tya.r yiro kwẽ Prost (1964: 354)
U10 Pere yɔ̀ ŋgɔ́ tàː.ŋɔ́ náː Creissels (2010: 7, 9, 10)
(U11.A) Atlantic: Cangin *ana *a(ɛ)ɠɛ(a)y ? ? Drolc (2005: 203)
(U11.B) Mel: Temnic *-rə.ŋ *-sa.s *-aŋ(ə)lɛ *(kə)Tamat Wilson (1961: 62)
U11.C Gola ti.el tā́ .(l) tī ́.nâ nó.no Westermann (1921: 39)
U11.D Limba -le -ta.t -na.ṅ -so̱ hi Clarke (1922: 94, 96, 142, 144)
U11.E Sua -ceŋ -ra.r -na.n sɔŋgun Wilson (2007: 200–201)
U11.F Nalu -lɛ pwaat -na.ŋ tɛɛduŋ Wilson (2007: 200–201)
U11.G Rio Nunez *-lE *-Tɛ.T *-nə.ŋ ? Wilson (2007: 200–201)
(U12) Mande: Southwest *fele *sa(g)ba *naa.ni *zɔlɔ Dwyer (1988: 145); Kastenholz (1996: 188, 189)
(U12) Mande: Niger-Volta *pela *jalko *sireko *sodu Schreiber (2008: 327)
U13 Dogon *leV *ta.n(dV) *nai *nu(m)V Moran, Forkel and Heath (2016)
U14 Bangime jíndò táá.rù néɛ̀ núndì Hantgan (2013: 489)
(U15.A) Central: Oti-Volta *le *ʈa *na:.(si) *nu Manessy (1975; 180, 306, 308)
(U15.A) Central: Gan-Dogose *-nyo *-sa *-nyi *-mU.wa Miehe (2001: 270)
U15.B Kulangoic ? *sA.(r) *na *tO Miehe (2001: 271)
U15.C Miyobe -tí:.rɛ́ -tā:nī -nā -nūbū Pali (2011: 262)
U15.D Tiefo *jɔ̃ *sã *ŋ(w)Õ *kã Heath, Ouattara, and Hantgan (2017: 40)
U15.E Viemo nii.ni saa.si juumi kwɛge Prost (1979: 39)
U15.F Tusian *ni.nV *tṼ.nṼ *(V)nyã *k(V)lV Prost (1964: 279); Zaugg-Coretti (2005: 36)
U15.G Samuic ? *tV *naa.(so) *susu Miehe (2001: 271)
U15.H Senufo *Suni *ta.r(e) *TiKyEr(E) *kaKuro Miehe (2001: 271)
U16.A Tula-Waja *-rVP *-taa.T- *-naa.T *-nU.(N)- Kleinewillinghöfer (2012c)
U16.B Longuda *-Kwa(i) *-(t)sE.r *-nyI.r *-nyO.(N) Kleinewillinghöfer (2014c)
U16.C Ɓǝna-Mboi *fEtE *taa- *kurun *-nO.n Kleinewillinghöfer (2011c)
(U16.E) Samba-Duru (minus Samba) *-i.tV *taa.r *naa.r *-nO.n- Boyd (1974: 68, 73, 75); Kleinewillinghöfer (2015c)
U16.F Mumuyic *zi.ti *taa.ti *(d)nee.ti *maani Shimizu (1979: 82, 106–107)
U16.G Maya *iDNE(t) *taa.t *naa.t *nu.ŋ Kato, Yoder, and Blench (n.d.: v)
U16.H Kebi-Benue *si.tV *sa.i *na.i/na.N *ndep Boyd (1974: 68, 73, 75)
U16.I Kimic: Kim *zī *ta(’) *nda *nũy Lafarge and Seignobos (1975: 104)
U16.K Day dīí tāà ndāà.g sāri Nougayrol (1980: 154, 157, 171, 177)
U16.L Baa~Kwa gbéè mwáàn nà.t núú Kleinewillinghöfer (2011b)
U16.M Nyingwom~Kam yiraak cà.r ná.r ŋwú.n Kleinewillinghöfer (2015b)
U16.N Fali cuk *ta:.n *na:.n kɛ̃ɾɛw Sweetman (1981: 90–91); Kramer (p.  c.)
U17.A Gbayaic *ḷíí.tò/*bùà *tà.r(à) *ná.r(á) *mɔ̀rkɔ̰ ́ Moñino (1995: 654)
U17.B Zandic ? *-ta.(i) ? *-SU Boyd and Nougayrol (1988: 69–71)
U17.C Mbaic ? ? *-na ? Pasch (1986: 398)
U17.D Mundu-Baka *-Si *-tà *-na *Būè Winkhart (in prep.); cf. Moñino (1988: 101, 106, 133, 142)
U17.E Ngbandic *-sɛ̀ *-tá *-siO *-kO Moñino (1988: 101, 106, 133, 142)
U17.F Bandaic *-Sì *-tà *-nā *mīndû Moñino (1988: 101, 106, 133, 142)
(U17.G) Ndogoic: South *(-)s.o *ta.o *na.o *vo.o Santandrea (1961: 37); cf. Moñino (1988)
U18.A Heibanic ? ? *-aɽŋo *-ud̪ine Schadeberg (1981a: 56, 180–181)
U18.B Talodic *-eḍac *-ət̪t̪ək *bəḍandɔ (derived) Norton and Alaki (2015: 151)
U18.C Lafofa pa.d̪ɛ́ɛ́r.iŋ pa.daa.iŋ kɛ̂kká kilíɛgúm Schadeberg (1981b: 45)
U18.D Rashadic *-(r)ko(k) *-V.tta *-aaram *-arVm Schadeberg (2013: 338)

Pozdniakov (2018)Edit

Numeral reconstructions by Pozdniakov (2018):

Numeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 100 1000
Proto-Niger-Congo *ku-(n)-di (> ni/-in), *do, *gbo/kpo *ba-di *tat / *tath *na(h)i *tan, *nu(n) 5+1 5+2 *na(i)nai (< 4 reduplicated) 5+4 *pu / *fu
Proto-Ijo ? *n-kɛ̀ni *die *mamV *tató *nɛ́ín *túnɔ́ 5+1 5+2 4+4 5+4 *(w)ójí *síí
Proto-Bantoid *m-o-ʔ, m-o-i, m-o-ti, mo-di *pa/fe, badi (*ba-di?) *tat *nai *tan *ta-ta(t) (< 3 redupl.?) *samba/camba (< *c/saN+2?) *na-nai (< 4 redupl.) *bukV *fu, kum/kam 10*2 *gbi? ki? 20*5? kam? ?
Proto-Defoid *ɲɛ́, ka(n) *jì *tā *lɛ(n)/ne, je *lú(n)/tu(n) *fà *byē *jo/ro *sá(n), dà *gwá *gwú(n)/gbolo 20*5
Proto-Yoruba-Igala *ɲɛ́, ka(n) *jì *tā *lɛ(n) *lú(n) *fà *byē *jɔ̄ *sá(n) *gwá *gwú(n) 20*5
Igala é-ɲɛ́/ǒ-kâ è-dʒì ɛ̀-ta ɛ̀-lɛ̀ ɛ̀-lú ɛ̀-fà è-bʲe ɛ̀-dʒɔ ɛ̀-lá ɛ̀-ɡʷá ó-ɡʷú 20*5
Yoruba ē-nḭ́, ɔ̀-kɔ̰̄ è-jì ɛ̀-tā ɛ̀-rḭ̄ à-rṵ́ ɛ̀-fà è-jē ɛ̀-jɔ̄ ɛ̀-sɔ̰́ ɛ̀-wá ō-gṵ́ 20*5
Ariɡidi (dial.) kɛ̀ɛ́-ɲɛ̃ kè-ji ke-dà ke-nɛ ké-ntɔ̀ ke-fà ke-ɸi ke-rò ké-ndà ké-è u-ɡbɔrɔ̀ 20*5
Ayere (dial.) ì̃-kǎ̃ ì-dʒì ī-tā ī̃-jē̃ ī̃-tú̃ ì-fà ī-dʒʷī ī-rō ī̃-dẫ ī-ɡʷá ē-ɡbɔ̄lɔ̄ 20*5
Proto-Cross *kin/cin, *ni(n), *gboŋ/gwan *bae, *po/pa *ta(t)/ca(t) *na(n) *tan, *gbo(k) 5+1, diʔ, 3+3 5+2 4+4 10–1, 5+4 *kpo/kop, fo? ʔo? *job *ti/ci ? dip ? 20*5
Proto-Edoid *kpa, wo/gwo/vu *va/və *sa *ni *sien/su(w)on 3PL, 3 *ghie? 4 redupl. *cien/sin *gbe, kpe *gie/jie 20*5 *du, ria/li
Proto-Idomoid *nze/je/nye/ye, kpokpoh?a *pa, miyeh? *ta/la *nɛ̀, ndo, he *do/lo, ho, ro/rwo *rowo/riwi, ji, hili 5+2, renyi 5+3 5+4 *gwo/wo, jwo *fu/hu, su 20*5, 10*10
Proto-Igboid *tù, ŋìnɛ́ (Ekpeye)? *bɔ́ *tɔ́ *nɔ́ *sé *ʃıi̋ *saà 5+3 *totu/tolu *ɗì/ri/li *ɡwʊ̃́/ɣʰʊ̄, kpɔrɔ 20*5 *puk(w)u
Proto-Jukunoid *(d)zun? ʃɪʃ́ e? tə́ŋ? *pa(n)/fa(n) *ta *nye *tsoŋ 5+1 5+2 4 redupl., 5+3 5+4 *jwe, wo? kur? ‘body’ (di) 20*5 < Hausa
Proto-Kainji *tsin, hin, din, jan/yan, *te … *re, *ba/bi, -pu? *tat *nas *tan *ci(hi)n, *tas (< 3?), *tel 5+2 *ro/ru, *5+3, *kunle(v)/kunlo 5+4, *10–1, *jiro *pwa, *turu, *kuri, *kup/kpa 10*2, *ʃín/ʃík ?
Proto-Platoid *(y)in, di(n), jir, nìŋ *pa/fa/ha, ba/wa. *tat *nai/nas *tu(ku)n 5+1, 3PL 5+2, 4+3 4 redupl., 5+3 5+4, 10–1, 12–3, tu(ku)n *kop, gur/wur 12+8 ?
Proto-Nupoid *ni/nyi, wi? ri? *ba *ta *na/ni *tun/tnu/tsun, hi? 5+1 5+2 5+3 5+4 *wo *ʃi, hu? 20*5 ?
Proto-Ikaan *ʃí *wà *tāːs/h-rāhr *nāʲ/nā/náhḭ́ *tòːn/h-rʊ̀ːn/sò̰n/cʊ̰̀nv̰ *h-ɾàdá/sàdá/sàrá *h-ránèʃì (’6+1’) *nàːnáʲ (4 redupl.) *h-ráòʃì (X-1) *ò-pú/fú *ù-ɡbɔ́rɔ́ (< ‘sack’), * à-ɡbá *à-ɡbá à-h-ruǹ(20*5)
Akpes í-ɡbōn, ē-kìnì ī-dīan(ì) ī-sās(ì) ī-nīŋ(ì) ī-ʃōn(ì) ī-tʃānās(ì) ī-tʃēnētʃ(ì) ā-nāānīŋ(ì) (4 redupl.) ɔ̀-kpɔ̄lɔ̀ʃ(ì) ī-yōf(ì), t-ēfī ɔ̄-ɡbɔ̄(lɔ̄) ī-ɡbɔ́ ʃōnì (20*5)
Oko ɔ̀-ɔ́rɛ, ɔ̀-jɛ́rɛ ɛ̀-bɔ̀rɛ̀ ɛ̀-ta ɛ̀-na ù-pi ɔ̀-pɔ́nɔ̀ɔ́rɛ (5+1) ú-fɔ́mbɔ̀rɛ̀ (5+2) ɔ̀nɔ́kɔ́nɔkɔ́nɔ (4 redupl.?) ù-bɔ́ɔ̀rɛ̀ (10–1) ɛ̀-fɔ ɔ́-ɡbɔlɔ í-pì
Lufu ù-tí (ba)-máhà bá-tá ba-ɲì bá-tsó 5+1 5+2 5+3 5+4 ú-wó e-ce ?
Benue-Congo *ni, kin/cin (< k-in?), gbon, (o-)di(n)?, (o-)ti? *ba-di/ba-ji, pa? ba(i)? *tat *nai *tan/ton 3PL/3 redupl./3+3, 5+1 5+2 4 redupl. 5+4 *pu/fu, kup/kop, gwo/jwo *absent? gwa/gwe? < ‘person’? *absent? 20*5
Proto-Gbe *è-ɖe/ɖe-kpo *è-ve/e-wè *è-tɔ̀̃ *è-nɛ̀ *à-tɔ̃́ɔ̃ *à-dɛ̃́/zɛ̃́ ‘hand’+2, 5+2 *e-ɲí, ‘hand’+3 8+1, 5+4 *e-wó, *bula 10*2, ko 40*2+20 *à-kpé, kotokũ
Proto-Attié *kə(n) *mwə(n) *ha(n) *dʒí(n) < *kɥe? *bə(n) *mu(n) *nson *ma-4? 2 de 10? *ŋgwan *kɛŋ ‘hand’ (bwa?)*2? *ja *a-kpi
Proto-Potou *bɛ̰̀/brɛ̀, ló-ɓō; ce/seno *no̰ɔ̰́ *ɗyá/je *ɗi/ni *na̰ *kwa *6+1 *ɓyá/gɓī *ɓrɔ̀, tru᷄ *wɔ *pɛ̰ *ya
Proto-Western Tano *o-kue *a-ɲu(n) *n-ha(n) *n-na(n) *n-nu(n) *n-cɪ́ɛ̀/híɛ̀ *n-cʋ̀n, à-fà *mɔ̀-kʋ̀ɛ́, à-nɛ̀mrɔ̰̀ *puálɛ́hʋ̀n, brúkú *ò-bùlṵ́, è-dí *ɛ́-fɪ(n) *ɛ̀-vá/ɛ̀-yǎ, átá *a-kpi
Proto-Akanic *ba-kó(n) *mie-nú *mie-nsá(n) *náín *núḿ *sìá(n) *só(n) *twé/cué *n-króń *dú 10*2 *ɔ-ha *a-píḿ
Proto-Bia *ko(n) *nu, ɲɔ̀(n) *sa(n) *na(n) *nu(n)/nu(m) *sia(n) *su(n) *cʊɛ/twɛ *ǹɡɔ̀̃lã̀ , nkróń *bulu 10*2 *ya *akpi
Proto-Northern Guang *kɔ́ *ɲɔ́ *sá *ná *nú(n) *síyé *súnɔ́ *bùrùwá, kwé *kpɔnɔ, sàngɔ́ɔ́ʔ *dú *o-ko, 10*2 *lafa (< Akan?) *kpɪŋ́, pim
Proto-Southern Guang *kɔ *ɲɔ́ *sa(n) *nɛ(n)/na *nu/ni *siɛ(n) *súnɔ̋ *twi/cwi *kpunɔ *du 10*2 *ɔ̀lɔ̀fɛ́/lafa *a-kpe
Proto-Guang *kɔ *ɲɔ́ *sa(n) *na(n) *nu(n) *siɛ(n) *súnɔ(n) *bùrùwá, kwé/cwi *kpunɔ, sàngɔ́ɔ́ʔ *du 10*2, ko? *lafa *kpi(N), pim
Proto-Ka-Togo *di *bha, din *ta *na/nɛ *tu(N) *golo/ koro 6+1 4*2, nsɛ/lɛ? 8+1? 10-1 *fo/wo, te, bula 10*2 *lafa? *a-kpe
Proto-Na-Togo *i-wɛ/kpɛ ?, di(N) ? *i-nyɔ *i-ta *i-na *i-no(N) *golo/kolo, ku 6+1 4PL 10-1 *fo, ɗu, təb 10*2, ɔ-ɖɔ(n), ā-kōō, dìkpìlìn 20*5, lofa, u-ga *a-kpi, pim ?
Proto-Agneby *N-kpɔ, ɲ-âm, *a-ri *a-ɲʊ̰/nʊ̄ *a-ti(N)/ri *a-nḭ́/la, jar *o-ne, lɔ̀hʊ̰̀, jên *hu(n) 6+1, bu(n) *è-pyè, wo(n) *bare(-n) *nɛ(n) (< 5pl?), diw/ liw < ‘hand’; *2?,li-kŋ *ja, 20*5 *a-kpi
Proto-Awikam-Alladian *ɛ-to̰ *á-ɲɔ̰, ā̰-yrɛ *á̰-zá̰, ā̰-ò *à-ná̰, ā̰-zɔ̀ *à-ɲú, ɛ̄-nrì *á-wá, ɛ̄-wrè *ɛ́-byɔ̰́, ɛ̄-bwḛ̀ *ɛ̀-tyɛ́, ē-ɥrì *ɛ́-mrɔ̰́ *è-jú, ɛ̄-và *ɛ̀-vɛ́, ɛ̄-ɥá 20*5, àkpá-ɲú
Proto-Kwa *di-kpo *ɲɔ, *di? *ta *na *nu(n), ton *golo/kolo, kua, ciɛ 6+1 4PL, kwe/kye 10–1? *fo/wo, bula, du 10*2, ko 20*5, lofa, ja/gya? *kpi, pim
Proto-Kru *do, (g)bolo *so(n) *taa(n) *na *gbə/gbo, mm 5+1 5+2 5+3 5+4 *pu, kʊgba? *golo 20*5 400*2+200
Laal ɓɨ̀dɨĺ (ɓɨ̀-dɨĺ ?) ʔīsī (ʔī-sī?) māā ɓīsān (ɓī-sān?) sāb, swa- cìcààn 5+2 4 redupl. yàŋjáŋ tūū 10*2 10- ‘big’ < Baguirmi < Hausa
Proto-Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka *kpɔ́k/kpóm ;ndáŋ *bùà, *ɭíítò; bùwá (bù-wá?)/vàχ, -too *tàr(à) *nár(á) *mɔ̀ɔ̀rɔ̰́/mɔ̀r-kɔ́ ̰ 5+1, (ɡàzɛ̀lɛ̀) 5+2 5+3; 4PL 5+4;kùsì *ɓú/ɓú-kɔ́ 10*2 *gɔ́m-màá ; < Lingala < French ‘sack’, < Lingala
Proto-Ngbandi *kɔ(i) *sɛ *ta *siɔ/syɔ *kɔ̃/kṵ̄ *mana, mɛ̀rɛ̄ *mbara-mbara *miambe/myɔ̀mbè *ɡumbaya *sui, bàlé 10*2 *nɡbanɡbo < Lingala, Arabic
Proto-Sere-Ngbaka-Mba *kí-lī, sa *ī-jō/ī-yō/úé *bíá-tá/ā-tā *lu, bīà-nɡì ~ bīà-mà *ì-sìbē/bī-sùè 5+1 5+2 5+3 5+4 *ŋɡbɔ̃̄/bà-wē ‘people one’ *ndɔ̄ŋɡbʉ́, nɡbànɡbù < Sango *sákì/sākè (< Sango < French)
Proto-Dogon *túrú/tumɔ, ti(i) *lɛ́(y)/lɔ́(y)/nɛ́(y)/nɔ́(y) *taan *nay(n), kɛɛso *núnɛ́ɛ́(n)/nǔː(yn)/nûm *kuro/kule *suli/soli/soye *gá(a)rà, sagi, sele (< Mande?) *túwɔ́ *pɛ́rú/pɛ́lú 10*2 80 (síìŋ/súŋ) +20, < Fula 800 (múɲú) +200
Bangime tòré/tǐyɛ́ (in counting) jíndò táárù nìjɛ́ nǔndí kěré kǐjé sàáɡín (< Mande?) tɛ́ɡò kúrɛ́ tàáw̃á tɛ̀ɛ̀mɛ̀dɛ́rɛ́ (< Fula ) mǔʒú
Proto-Oti-Volta *den/yen, ni, de? *li/yi *ta(t) *naa(si) *nu *lob/yob *lob-le; (6+1)?; poi(n)? *ni *wey/weʔ *pi(k) 10*2 *kob, kook
Proto-Grusi *do/du/lu, de/re *lɛ/le/ne/ɲi *toro/toso/tɔ *naare/naasi/na *nu/nʊ *dʊ/lo-ɖo/lo-ro, 5+1 *pɛ/lʊ-pɛ/lʊ-bɛ, 5+2 4 redupl. 10–1, nibi/nibu (ni-bi/bu?) *fu/fi 10*2? 20*5? bi? kɔwa/kɔɔ? *kpoŋ/ɡboŋ
Proto-Lobi-Dyan *bɪɛ̀l, *dò *nyɔ̀(n) *thɛ̀̃s(i)/tʰěr *nã́ *mɔ̀ɩ̀/*mà/*mɔ̀lɔ̀, dìèmà 5+1 5+2 5+3 10–1 *ni-kpo, nyʊ̀ɔ́r *kpèle, ceeru *tàmâ *ɡbʊ̀lanɪ, 100*10
Proto-Mande *do, kelen *pila/fila *sakpa/sagba/sawa, ʔààkɔ̃/yààká? *náání/nɑ̃ɑ̃i *dúuru/sɔ́ɔ́ru, wo? ko? *tan? (> ‘10’?), nù̃? *wɔrɔ (wɔ-rɔ? ‘hand’+1?), t(s)um? *wɔ-X-fila (‘hand’+2?) *seki/segi (< ‘plus’-3?) *kònonto/kɔ̀nɔndɔ(n) (10–1, 5+4) *pu/fu, tan (< *‘5’?) < ‘human’ *kɛmɛ, 20*5 *wulu, wa(g)a
Proto-Southern Mel *pìlɛ̀/pilɔ (< *lɛ/lɔ?), bul, mɔ *tsiŋ/tiŋ *ra *hiɔl *wan/wen 5+1
Proto-Northern Mel *-in *-rəŋ *-sas *-ŋkɨlɛ/-nlɛ *kə-ʈamaʈ (< * kə- ʈa ‘hand’?) 5+1
Proto-Mel *-in, < *lɛ/lɔ? *díŋ/tsiŋ/tiŋ, -rəŋ *tat (> sas, ra) *hiɔl, -ŋkɨlɛ/< -nlɛ? *wan/wen, < ‘hand’ 5+1
Proto-Cangin *no *nak *haj/ʔéeyə *nik-iɭ < *nak-iɭ? *jat (< ‘hand’), ʔiːp 5+1
Proto-Tenda *ɓɑt, ndi/riye/diye/iye, mbɔ *ki *taʈ *næ̀x *mbəɗ (< ‘hand’), cɔ/njɔ 5+1
Proto-North Atlantic *di(n)/li(n)/ye(n)/ne(n), mbɔ *di(k), nak *taʈ *nak < ‘hand’, jo, tVk/rog, rib/ʔiːp 5+1
Bak don/lɔŋ, -anor, əkon ɬubəʔ, -təb/-təw, -puguʈ/pugus feeɡir, yanʈ/jenʈ, habi/yabi baakər/wakər, tasala/tahala ‘hand’, tɔk, tən? paag/paaj, 5+1 6+1, 5+2, jand/jaanʔ/ cand (Pepel) 4PL/4 redupl., ʊʌs 5+4, 10–1, 6+3 5pl (‘hands’), (n)taaj, taim, -suwan ‘person’, 10*2 borrowed kʊnt (borrowed?)
Sua sɔn cen b-rar b-nan sɔŋɡun 5+1 5+2 5+3 5+4 tɛŋi 10*2 kɛmɛ uŋ-kɔntu
Gola ɡuùŋ tì-yèe/tī-el/cel taai/tāāl tii-nàŋ nɔ̀ɔ̀nɔ̀ŋ 5+1 5+2 5+3 5+4 zììyà kpɛ̀(w)ùŋ 20*5 < English
Limba ha-nthe ka-le/kaa-ye ka-tati ka-naŋ ka-sɔhi 5+1 5+2 5+3 5+4 kɔhi 10*2 kɛmɛ, wuli (borrowed) wulu (< Mande)

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

Vocabulary lists of African languages
Nilo-Saharan

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