Appendix:Proto-Plateau reconstructions

The following list of selected Plateau reconstructions is from Gerhardt (1983: 225-228). The selected reconstructions compiled by Gerhardt (1983: 225-228) represent more stable lexicon items that are cognate across different Plateau groups.

Gerhardt (1983) reconstructs Proto-Plateau 2a, Proto-Plateau 2b, Proto-Plateau 3, and Proto-Plateau 4.

LanguagesEdit

Languages used by Gerhardt (1983) for his reconstructions, along with corresponding subgroups according to Roger Blench (2008):[1]

Group Languages Blench (2008) classification
Kagoro Kagoro, Katab, Atakar, Kaje, Zarek (Afusare), Irigwe Tyapic, Izere, Rigwe
Jaba Jaba (Kwoi), Jaba (Jaban Ketare), Kagoma, Koro, Lungu Hyamic, Koro, Gyongic
Plateau 4 Nindem, Kaningkom, Ninzam, Mada (West), Mada (North), Che (Rukuba) Ninzic

ListEdit

English *Proto-Plateau 2a (Kagoro) *Proto-Plateau 2b (Jaba) *Proto-Plateau 3 (Beromic) *Proto-Plateau 4 (Ninzic)
animal *i-nam / *niam *ì-nam *niam *ì-naŋ
answer, to *siim *sim *siim
arm *-bwak *gu-bok *-bwak *ku-ŋɔ́k
ashes *-toŋ *ba-toŋ *-toŋ *ù-Ntɔ́ŋ
ask, to *dip *lip+V *dịp
back *-ma *-ma *-ma
bee *-siwas *ì-ɣwek *-siwas *i-sịok
bird *-nwan *ì-nu *-nwan *ì-nɔn
black *sit *sit *sịt
blood *-suok *ba-zi *nì-ji *ma-ɣì
blow, to *pyap *pep *pyap
bone *-kup *gu-kup *-kup *kù-kụp
borrow, to *kwap *kop *kwap *kɔp
break, to *but *bun *mun
breast *-basan *gu-beŋ / *-baŋ *-basal
buffalo *-zat *ì-Nɣas *-zat *ì-ɣat
call, to *gi *he[s] *gis / *git
charcoal *-tian *-ka[N] *-kal *a-kar
child *-gwan *-ɣwe *-gwal *u-vin
chin / beard *-det *ga-Ndet *dyat *Nd: i-Njet
clay *-dyam *Kor: ru-dem *-le
clothing *-todok / *tosok *Kor: tola *-tula *à-Ntɔr
come, to *ba *ba *byas
corpse *-kom *u-kom *-kwam *ki-kóm
count, to *pa[ŋ] *pal+V *basa *ban / *bar
cow *-niak *ì-nak *ì-Nɣak
dew *-myaŋ *-meŋ *ma-méŋ
die, to *kwu *kwo *ku *kụ
dig, hoe, farm *kap *kap+V *kap
dirt *-dik *-lim *-dik *i-dị́k
divide, to *kap *gap *gap / *kap *gap
drink, to *suo *[hwa] *swa *sɔ
dry, to *kwot *kol+V *kwat *kor
dust *-bwuŋ *-buŋ *ì-put
ear *-two *gu-to[ŋ] *-toŋ *ku-tóŋ
earth *-byin *ba-bi *-byal *ku-mi
egg *-tii *-zeŋ *-tii
excrements *-biŋ *gi-bíŋ *-biŋ *-gwiŋ / *ɣeŋ
eye *-gi *gu-su *-gis *ki-sị́
fall, to *kua *gwa *ku
father *da *ta *a-ti
firewood *-kwan *ga-ko[n] *Aten: a-hwɔ́n
five *-twon *-to[ŋ] *[tuŋun] *-tɔ́ŋ
fly (n) *-tiiŋ *ì-zuŋ *-tiiŋ *-ciNciŋ
foot, leg *-tak *gu-dak *-tak *[ku-za]
four *-nas *-naŋ *-nas *-nas
give, to *[ŋ]wat *nwak *nɔk
goat, sheep *-buon *ì-bu *-bwal / *-byal *ì-ɣo[n]
go out, to *wut *ɣul+N *wudu *ɣur
guest *nyat tien *u-tsen *ù-can
hare *-suom *u-zo *u-ɣɔm
head *-tii *-tsi *-twa *ki-tú
hole *-bwoŋ *gu-bo *-boŋ
honey *-toŋ *-toŋ *-toŋ *ù-tóŋ
intestines *-na *gu-na[ŋ] *-la *ki-ne (belly)
iron *-tuam *ì-dom *dyam ? *Nd: i-Ntom
lung *-pu[k] *-pu *-fufu
medicine man *-bwok *-bok *-bok *-bok[a]
moon, month *-pyan *-pe[n] *-pyal *u-pwa
mouth *-nu[ŋ] *ga-nyu *-nu *-nuŋ / *-n[y]uŋ
navel *-kwap *u-kwop *-kop *ì-kom
neck *-two *u-to[ŋ] *-to *ki-tɔ
new *-pas *-pa *-pas *-pas
night *-tuk *-tuk *-tuk *ka-tụk
old *-kwap *-kwo *-kwap
one *-niiŋ *-gini *[d]iniŋ *-ɣan
person *-nyat *u-net *u-nit / *u-nit
pot *-don *-rɔ̀n *ì-ren
press, to *pi *pin / *pit *pi
red *-sioŋ *-seŋ *-sen / *ser
rock *-paŋ *ì-paŋ *ku-páŋ
rope *-dik *-lik *d-w-ik *-dịk
salt *-twak *-tok *-tok
scorpion *-niaŋ *ì-naŋ *-laŋ *ì-daŋ
shave, to *kwat *k[w]on *kwan
shoot, to *ta[ŋ] *tat / *taŋ *ta *tak
sickness *-dwak *-do *[k]u-dɔ
sit, to *suan *saŋ *sɔŋ
skin *-kua *-ku *ku-kpa
sleep, to *da *lo *na *na
smoke *-tiiŋ *-zuŋ *kyeŋ *-Ntseŋ
spear *-kuan *ga-kwan *ì-Nkpaŋ / *-kpat
they *ba *ba *ba
three *tat *tat *tat *tat
tie, to *dwap *dwap *dɔp
tongue *-dyam *ga-lem *-lyam *ì-rem
tooth *nii[ŋ] *-gi[ŋ] *-ɣiŋ *ki-Nyin / *-Nyir
tree *-kwan *-kon *ù-kon
twelve / ten *-swak *u-sok *cok
two *-pa[saŋ] *-pa *-pa / *-ba *-pah
vein / tendon *tiip *-tsii *ku-cip
wash, to *sua *sua *sɔ
water *-sii *-sii *a-ma-sit
weave, to *nok *nok *lwak *dok
work *tom *tom+V *tomo *u-Ndom
yam *ì-tsit *-kid *ì-síṛ
ant sp. *-suan *ì-san
basket *-seŋ *ka-saŋ
chief *-gwam *-gwam
cock *-guak *à-gwàk
cut, to *pat / *pak *pàk
day / sun *-nwam *u-nom
dog *-bwu *ì-ɣo *-bu *ì-ɣu
fat *-pyap *ma-pep
medicine *-kan *-kal
mountain *i-go *ì-gwo
rot(ten) *po[n] *bon / *bor
send, to *tom *tom *to
smell, to *nuk *nuŋ

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Blench, Roger. 2008. Prospecting proto-Plateau. Manuscript.

ReferencesEdit

  • Gerhardt, Ludwig. 1983. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Sprachen des Nigerianischen Plateaus (Afrikanistische Forschungen 9). Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin.
Vocabulary lists of African languages
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Khoisan

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Language isolates

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Others

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