Appendix:Proto-Afroasiatic reconstructions

The following list of Proto-Afroasiatic reconstructions is from Ehret (1995).


No. Proto-Afroasiatic English gloss Notes
1. *w deverbative complement and result suffix
2. *y attributive noun and attributive deverbative suffix
2a. *y adjective suffix
3. *t associative noun suffix
4. *t adjective suffix
5. *m attributive noun suffix
5a. *m adjective suffix
6. *n attributive (?) noun suffix
6a. *n adjective suffix
7. *l attributive and complement deverbative suffix
7a. *l adjective suffix
8. *r instrument and comple-deverbative suffix
9. *r adjective suffix
10. *b animate deverbative suffix
11. *s deverbative complement suffix
12. attributive noun suffix
13. adjective deverbative suffix
14. *a- attributive deverbative prefix
14a. *i- attributive deverbative prefix
15. - noun derivation from verb by stem-vowel lengthening
1. *dl middle voice
2. *h amplificative
3. *w inchoative/denominative (> durative)
4. *y inchoative/denominative (> durative)
5. *ɣʷ complementive
6. *kʷ’ andative
7. partive (> andative)
8. venitive
9. *tl’ focative
10. *ts diffusive
11. *r diffusive
12. *kʷ finitive
13. *l finitive (> fortative in Eg.)
14. *p’ finitive fortative
15. *g finitive fortative
16. non-finitive
17. *n non-finitive
18. *b extendative (> stative)
19. *c’ extendative
20. *f iterative
21. *ḥ iterative
22. *gʷ durative
23. *k durative
24. *d durative (> stative)
25. *t durative (> intransitive)
26. concisive
27. *x precipitive
28. *p intensive (of manner)
29. *z intensive (of manner)
30. intensive (of effect)
31. *k’ intensive (of effect)
32. *t’ durative intensive
33. *s’ fortative
34. *m extendative (?) (> stative in Cushitic)
35. *dz extendative fortative
36. *xʷ extendative fortative
37. *s causative
38. *-u- transitive infix
39 *in- concomitive prefix
1. *bǔ place
2. *ba not be there
3. *bôf-, *bôp- upper chest
4. *-boɣ- to hit
5. *-bâh- to go secretively
6. *-bâḥ- to strike with a blade or point
7. *baaḥ- voice
8. *-boḥ- to go away
9. *-bôoḥ- to flow
10 *b-j(r)- seed
11. *-bâk- to burn, shine; to dawn (Sem., Eg. innovation: n. 'morning' by addition of *r n. suff.)
12. *-bǒkʷ- to leak, seep, run out
13. *-bâl- to wet
14. *-bâl- to move (intr.)
15. *-bel- to break (tr.)
16. *biil- tip
17. *bǔɬ- skin
18. *-bîn-/*-bân- to beget
19. *-bǐn- to build, create; house
20. *-bâr- to leak, seep; bleed (additional Cushitic alternants *-bîr- and *-bûr-)
21. *-bêr- to hold
22. *-bir- to burn brightly
23. *-bǐrk’-/*-bǎrk’- to flash (root #22 + *k’ intens. of effect)
24. *bǎs’- to start off, begin
25. *biš- skin
25. *bǐšr- hull, shell (stem + *r n. suff.; SC semantics: early beads were made of shell)
26. *-bǎat’- to be in front, go in front
27. *-batl’- to move away, move apart
28. *-bĕets-/*-bǒots- bright, lit up
29. *-box- to swell
30. *-boox- to cut into, dig into (with sharp tool)
31. *-bĕxʷ-/*-bǒxʷ- to spill out in drops, sprinkle
32. *bāayn- grindstone
33. *-beez- to emerge; reveal
34. *-baʔ- to be ruined
35. *-biʔ- to go
36. *-bûʔ- to flow
37. *-baʕ- to increase
38. *-baʕ- to sit
39. *-bǎaʕ- to flow heavily; to defecate
40. *-buʕ- to pick, pluck
41. *-pac-, *-pats- to scatter (intr.)
42. *-pâḥ-, *-pêḥ- to take into the mouth
43. *-pǎḥ-, *-pĕḥ- to break off
44. *-pêel- to take out, take away
45. *-pil-, *-piil- to drive, chase
46. *-piɬ- to split apart, lay open
47. *pand- peak
48. *-pǎŋʷ- to clear away, remove, empty out
49. *-pǔnc’- to pluck out, pull out (root of #48 + *c’ extend.; *u < *i /#-p_ŋʷC-#?)
50. *-pār-/*-pīr- to separate (intr.)
50. *-pur- to take apart (intr. stem + *-u- tr. infix)
51. *-pîr- to fly
52. *-poor-, *-pur- to speak
53. *-pas’-, *-pac-, *-pats- to light up
54. *-pooš- to be worn out, disabled
55. *-put- to step along
56. *-patl’-, *-paatl’- to separate (intr.)
57. *-pax- to bend
58. *-pax-, *-paax- to scrape off, scrape out
59. *piiz- limb (Berber, Eg. innovation: 'knee'; Berber *afud < *puuz)
60. *-pǎʔ-/*-pǔʔ- to spit out, make spurt
61. *-pâʔr- to dig up
62. *-piiʔ- to turn round (intr.)
63. *-piʕ-/*-puʕ- to be raised, stick up
64. *-pûʕ- to spill out (intr.)
65. *âf- mouth
66. *-fi- to go out
67. *-fic’- to scrape
68. *-fiic’- to press out fluid
69. *-fad- to draw out, pull out
70. *-fug- to drain out
71. *-fôɣ- to spread apart (intr.)
72. *-fǒɣ-, *-fǔɣ- to east off, cast out
73. *-fuɣ- to inhale
74. *-faah- to flow out
75. *-fâaḥ- to blow (with the mouth)
76. *-fiiḥ to penetrate
77. *-fâk- to be finished, come to an end, be used up
78. *-faak’- to break off, cut apart
79. *-fuk’-, *-fuuk’- to be wise, intelligent
80. *-fǎl-/*-fǔl- to accomplish
81. *-fǐl- to cut hole or cavity in
82. *-feŋ- to set apart, move apart (tr.)
83. *-fôoŋ-, *-fôon- to be frail
84. *-fǎr- to call out
85. *-fir- to flower, bear fruit
86. *-foor- to defeat, be victorious over
87. *-f-s- to take apart (root #66 + *s caus.?)
88. *-fât’- to excrete
89. *-feet’-/*-foot’- to separate (tr.)
90. *-fit’- to scrape repeatedly
91. *-fox-, *-foxʷ- hole, breach
92. *-fayt- to remove, take off
93. *fâzw- four (stem + *w n. suff.)
93. *ifz- having four parts (*i- attrib. pref. + stem)
94. *-fǐz- to swell, rise up
95. *-feeʔ- pick up
96. *-fîʔ/*-fâʔ- to smell
97. *-fūʔ- to grow, become large
98. *-fiiʕ- to make, do
99. *-fuuʕ- to stop up, close up hole
100. *-p’ac’- to cut off
101. *-p’ûc’- to increase (intr.) (Sem., Cush. innovation: 'increase' > 'grow fat, thicken')
102. *-p’âd- to increase (in size)
103. *-p’ad-/*-p’id- to become lost, useless, nonfunctioning
104. *-p’ǎd-/*-p’-̌d- to break off
105. *-p’oh- to be wide
106. *p’ǐḥ- flank
107. *-p’ǎk- to break up (tr.)
108. *-p’ak’-/*-p’ik’- to split (tr.)
109. *p’ul- shell
110. *-p’aɬ- to break by hitting
111. *-p’ûɬ- to deceive
112. *-p’ǎar- to twist (tr.), especially rope
113. *-p’ǔr- to rend, split up
114. *-p’is’k’- spit, saliva
115. *-p’îiz- to bite
116. *-p’uʔ-, *-p’uuʔ- to stop (intr.)
117. *-p’uʕ- to cut into
118. *-d- (*ada ?) here/there
119. *dâb-/*dîb- back; to come or be behind
120. *dab(n)- hair
121. *-dǎb-/*-dǐb- to have honey
122. *-doob- to stick up
123. *-dac- to flow
124. *-dif-/*-daf-/*-duf- to leak, seep, run
125. *-dug- to obscure, block from view
126. *-dagʷ- to walk about
127. *-dîɣ- to take away
128. *-diɣʷ- to tell
129. *-dâh- to move (intr.)
130. *-dâḥ- to strike
131. *-dĕeḥ-/*-dǒoḥ- to lie flat, be low
132. *-dîk- to pound
133. *dukʷ-, *duukʷ- heap
134. *-dôk’- to insert, stick into
135. *-duk-, *-dukʷ’- to break to pieces by hitting
136. *-dîl- to increase, grow large
137. *-dul- to raise, put above (#136 + *-u- tr. infix?)
138. *-duɬ-/*-diɬ- to beat
139. *-dǎm- to press together
140. *dîm-/*dâm- blood
141. *-dîm-/*-dûm- to leak out (probable source of #140)
142. *-dûm- to proclaim, speak forcefully
143. *dumn- cloud (root #141 + *n n. suff.; PC variant *damn-)
144. *danb- hindquarters
145. *-dap- to touch, feel, put the fingers on
146. *dup’- lower back
147. *-dup’s- to put behind (#146 + *s caus. as deverb.)
148. *-dip’-/*-dup’- to rise, swell
149. *-dâr- to grasp, grip, carry in the hands
150. *-dǎr- to enlarge, increase
151. *-dir- to step
152. *-dǎas’-/*-dǔus’- to put over, put on top of, cover over
153. *-daw- to walk
154. *-dax- to burn low, smolder
155. *-dax- to cover up, conceal from view (Ng. < alternate shape *-dix- or *-dux-)
156. *-dǔux- to close, shut
157. *-dǎʕ- to insert
158. *-daʕ- to call
159. *-iit- to eat (Ch., Eg., Sem. innovation: *-VC- v. stems > *-CV-)
160. *-tâ- to be hot
161. *-tǐb-, *-tǐib- to rise, grow
162. *-tuf- to spit
163. *-tǎɣ- to perish, be extinguished
164. *-taɣ-/*-tuɣ- to splash, splatter
165. *-tah- to tap
166. *-taḥ- to reach
167. *-tāk-/*-tūk- to stick (in), prick
168. *-tĕk-/*-tǒk- to tread
169. *-tǎkʷ- to descend, go down
170. *-tikʷ-/*-takʷ- to tight
171. *-tĕl- to fall down
172. *-tǔul- to rise; to form a heap, mound
173. *-tum- to beat
174. *-tar- to increase
175. *-tār- to start off
176. *-tǎr- to shake (intr.)
177. *-tǎar- to cut into
178. *tĕr-/*tǒr- earth
179. *tǐr- liver
180. *-taʕ- to become weak
181. *za something (indefinite pron.)
182. *-zâb- to grasp, take hold of
183. *-zab- to call
184. *-zǎab- to take
185. *-zaab- to look
186. *-zaf- to walk, travel
187. *-zif- to break up (by hitting)
188. *-zag-, *-zaɣ- to strike repeatedly
189. *-zǎgʷ-/*-zǐgʷ- to stay in place, not move
190. *-zaɣ- to move about quickly
191. *-zǒoɣ- to move (tr.), make move, convey (Eg., Sem. shared innovation: 'move, take' > 'take hold of')
192. *-zaaḥ- to flow out
193. *-zâkʷ- to turn (intr.)
194. *-zâk’- to raise, make rise (Cush., Ch., Eg., Sem. shared innovation: 'raise' > 'lift, pick up'; probable further Ch., Eg., Sem. innovation: 'lift' > 'carry'
195. *-zaak’- to eat up
196. *-zǎl- to cut (into, off)
197. *-zoɬ-, *-zooɬ- to scrape (surface of)
198. *-zanf- to seep out
199. *-zîn- to lie still
200. *-zaŋ-/*-ziŋ- to shine
201. *-zaŋ- to watch, observe
202. *-zaar- to move along
203. *-zots-, *-zoc- to stick out, stick up, form a point
204. *-zaax- to become drenched
205. *-zâʔ-, *-zâʕ- to look at
206. *-zǎʕ- to be held, be grasped
207. *-zâaʕ- to flee
208. *-zaaʕ- to rend, tear
209. *si, *isi he/she/it (unmarked for gender) (Eg., Sem., Cush, shared innovations: *su, *usu 'he'; *si, *isi 'she': see Chap. 6)
210. *su, *usu they (Eg., Sem., Cush. shared innovation: *ʔisin-/*ʔusun- 'they' (originally fem./masc.), #209 + Afroasiatic pl. in *n, as also in #323)
211. *-sǐf-/*-sûf- to put together
212. *-saɣ- to plait, weave
213. *-sǎk-/*-sǔk- to walk
214. *-suk- to stay
215. *-sǔk’-/*-sǎk’- to excrete, secrete
216. *-s-̂kʷ’- to rub (possible V reconstructions: *a, *aa, *e, or *o)
217. *-sîl- to pull off, draw off
218. *-sil- to run out (of fluid)
219. *-sim- to pay attention to, take note of (Sem., Eg., Ch. innovation: added sense, 'to listen to')
220. *sǔm-/*sǐm- name
221. *sǔm- above, up; crown of head
222. *-sîn-/*-sûn- to pour out
223. *sǐn-/*sǎn- tip, point, projecting part (Ch., Sem., Berber innovation: specialized meaning 'tooth'; but note presence of that meaning isolated in single Omotic language)
224. *-sǐiŋʷ- to smell (tr.)
225. *-sap- to come near (innovation: Sem., Ch. 'to come so close as to brush against')
226. *-sap-, *-saap- to hit repeatedly
227. *-sop- to be(come) bent over
228. *-sar- to cut
229. *sâr- back
230. *sǎr-/*sǐr- root
231. *saraar-/*siraar- muscle, sinew
232. *-sǎt’-/*-sǔt’- to bite into
233. *-sâx- to scrape
234. *-sīx-, *-sīix- to fall into ruin, become rubbish
235. *-sôx- to run out (fluid)
236. *-sâaz- to wait
237. *-siʔ- to not want (Eg., Sem. innovation: 'not want' > 'not need,' hence 'be sated')
238. *-soʔ- to be still
239. *-sâʕ- to do, accomplish
240. *-t’ab-/*-t’ib- to shut
241. *-t’ib- to perform ritual
242. *-t’ǒgʷ- to burn (tr.)
243. *-t’ôɣ- to rise
244. *-t’ôɣ-, *-t’ôɣʷ- to be wet
245. *-t’êh-, *-t’êeh- to approach
246. *-t’ih-/*-t’ah- to burn up
247. *t’îḥ- body hair
248. *-t’iḥ- to gasp
249. *-t’ǐḥ-/*t’ǎḥ- to understand, be knowledgeable
250. *-t’el- to observe
251. *-t’îɬ-/*-t’ûɬ- to glow
252. *-t’âp- to rise
253. *-t’-p’- to stamp
254. *t’eer- long
255. *t’îr- strand
256. *-t’ur- to be dirty
257. *-t’as’-/*-t’is’- to seep
258. *-t’aaw- to look at
259. *-t’ay-/*-t’iy- to be moist (Eg., Sem. shared innovation: n. for 'clay')
260. *t’âyp’- strand
261. *-t’eʔ- to lack
262. *gâb- great (especially in size but also in number)
263. *gâb- top
264. *gub-/*gab- trunk
265. *-gâd-/*-gûd- to be big
266. *-gǎd- to lower, put down
267. *-gaad- to stay
268. *-giid-/*-guud- to go around; put around
269. *-gǎdz- to stretch out, extend (intr.)
270. *-gaf- to oppose, give trouble
271. *-gâf- to hold, take hold of
272. *-gûf-/*-gâf- to go down
273. *-gûf- to bend, turn (intr.)
274. *-geh- to speak
275. *-guḥ-/*-giḥ- to swell, rise, grow
276. *-gāl- to show
277. *-gaal- to be alight, be afire
278. *gam- side of the head
279. *-gâm-/*gûm- to break off, tear off
280. *-gim- to come upon, meet up with
281. *-gǎŋ-/*-gǐŋ- to grow, grow up, mature (Ch., Eg., Sem. innovation: specialization of meaning to plant growth)
282. *-guup’- to soak; to drench, of rain (Berber, e.g., Shilh agafay 'cloud,' implies a 2nd root shape *-gaap’-)
283. *gâr- forest, bush
284. *-gêrʕ- to become old
285. *-gǐr- to sit
286. *-gǔs- to drive away
287. *-gāš- to chew
288. *-guš- to feel, run fingers over
289. *-gêz- to get, gain
290. *-gaʕ-, *-gaaʕ- to be sick
291. *-guʕ- to become wet
292. *-guʕ-, *-guuʕ- to kill (#290 with *-u- tr. infix?)
293. *gʷâa cut (n.)
294. *-gʷǎb- to not do
295. *-gʷad-/*-gʷid- to cut
296. *gʷǐd-/*gʷǎd- land
297. *-gʷâh- to ooze, run out (bodily fluid)
298. *-gʷaḥ- to stay
299. *-gʷeḥ- to scrape
300. *-gʷaj- to impel, make move (by pushing, pulling)
301. *-gʷǐl- to bend, turn (intr.)
302. *-gʷar- to turn (intr.)
303. *-gʷar-/*-gʷir- to tear off
304. *-gʷǎats- to strip (from the ground)
305. *-gʷîts- to be small
306. *-gʷîʔ-/*-gʷaʔ- to sip
307. *-gʷiiʕ-/*-gʷaaʕ- to swallow
308. *gʷaʕb- throat (root #307 + *b anim. deverb.)
309. *kaa this (demons.)
310. *ki you (fem. sing. bound pron.)
311. *ku, *ka you (masc. sing. bound pron.) (*ka as Eg., Sem., Ch. innovation ?)
312. *-kuc-, *-koc-, *-kooc- to flow
313. *-kǎac’- to catch hold of
314. *-kǔuf-/*-kǎaf- to wrap up, cover by wrapping
315. *-kǎḥ- to not be
316. *-kal- to turn round
317. *-kal-/*-kul- all
318. *kol- inner shoulder
319. *-kul- to meet
320. *-kǒɬ- to take
321. *-kam- to hold
322. *-kǔm- to add together
323. *kuuna you (pl. bound) (root #311+old Afroasiatic pl. in *n, as also in #210)
324. *kanf-/*kinf- wing
325. *kâns- loins
326. *-kep- to cease, no longer function
327. *kop- sole (of foot)
328. *-kâr- to turn round, go round
329. *-kûr- to dig out
330. *-kur-/*-kar- to cut up
331. *-kît- to produce water
332. *-kitḥ- to drink up, eat up (root #331 + *ḥ iter.)
333. *-keetl’- to threaten
334. *-kîts- to expand (intr.)
335. *-kaw- to step along
336. *-kaʔ- to cover up, enclose
337. *-kâʕ- to rise
338. *-kǐʕ- to turn (intr.), bend
339. *-kʷǎac-, *-kʷǎats- to scratch (with an implement)
340. *-kʷâd-, *-kʷâad- to make a loud noise
341. *-kʷâḥ-, *-kʷâaḥ- to become worn out
342. *-kʷal- to pound
343. *inkʷal- kidney
344. *-kʷâaɬ- to go away
345. *kʷeer- bush, brush, uncleared land
346. *kʷǐr- to twist (intr.)
347. *-kʷǐš- to grasp
348. *-kʷatl’-, *-kʷaatl’- to turn (intr.)
349. *-kʷâʕ- to run away
350. *ɣǎ tree (Sem., Eg. innovation: addition of *t n. suff.)
351. *-ɣab- to stop, stay
352. *-ɣǔb-/*-ɣǎb- to cut
353. *-ɣâf- to fit on top of, go above or in front of
354. *ɣǒɣ- crust
355. *ɣooɣ- gullet
356. *ɣah- skin
357. *-ɣaaḥ- to examine
358. *-ɣuḥ/*-ɣaḥ- to flow
359. *-ɣâl-/*-ɣûl- to be dry
360. *-ɣelf- to be strong, powerful
361. *-ɣaɬ- to break up, break apart (tr.)
362. *-ɣim- to slice, cut into
363. *-ɣan-/*-ɣun-, *-ɣaŋ-/*-ɣuŋ- to hit (Eg., Sem. innovation: narrowing of meaning to beating time to music)
364. *-ɣin-, *-ɣiŋ- to twist (tr.)
365. *ɣǔnts-, *ɣǔntsay- nap, fuzz, crusty layer (2nd root shape: adds *ɣ n. suff.)
366. *ɣunt- projecting surface, protrusion
367. *-ɣâp- to rise, arise
368. *-ɣar- to become dark
369. *-ɣuur-/*-ɣiir- to join (tr.), connect
370. *-ɣaat’- to fold (tr.) (Eg., Sem. innovation: 'fold over, bend')
371. *-ɣôxʷ- to bend round, form a curve
372. *-ɣaaʕ- to raise, lift, pick up
373. *-ɣâaʕ- to cry loudly
374. *ɣʷa heat (Eg., Sem. innovation: addition of *t n. suff.; short vowel required by derived verb #399)
375. *ɣʷîb-/*ɣʷâb- calabash (used as container, utensil, etc.)
376. *-ɣʷal- to grasp and take away
377. *-ɣʷîn- to lie (down)
378. *-ɣʷǎp-, *-ɣʷâap- to split (tr.)
379. *-ɣʷâap- to bend (part body)
380. *-ɣʷax-, *-ɣʷaax- to walk about
380. *-ɣʷaax- path
381. *-ɣʷeex- to cry out
382. *-ɣʷây-/*-ɣʷîy- to be hot (root #374 + *y inchoat.)
383. *xâb- piece of earth, area of ground
384. *-xadl- to spill, pour
385. *-xaf- to hit
386. *-xǎh- to utter
387. *-xâj- to rub
388. *xǎl- thin stalks, grass stalks
389. *-xîɬ- to scratch off
390. *-xoɬ- to make a rough sound
391. *-xan-, *-xaŋ- to move (intr.)
392. *-xap- to join, assemble
393. *xoor- ground
394. *-xas- to float, glide, drift (Sem., Ch. innovation: 'float' > 'flow')
395. *-xǐs’- to extend, stretch out (intr.); to reach out
396. *xiš- little, low, small
397. *xaynz- three
398. *-xâʕ- to rub, scrape
399. *xʷ- female
399. *xʷat- womb (1st stem shape + *t n. suff.)
400. *-xʷal-, *-xʷaal- to extract, take or draw out
401. *-xʷin-/*-xʷan-, *-xʷiŋ-/*-xʷaŋ- to inhale, take a breath (only C. reflexes imply 2nd form with reconstructed *a)
402. *-xʷâr- to split, make a hole in
403. *-xʷar-/*-xʷir- to attack, plunder
404. *-xʷâar- to turn (intr.)
405. *-xʷir- to rumble
406. *-xʷaat- to remove (from surface), pull, tear, or scrape off
407. *-xʷayl- to bear child (root #399 + *y denom. + *l fin.?)
408. *k’âb- cold
409. *-k’ab- to take hold of
410. *-k’ǐb- to be quiet
411. *-k’āc-, *-k’āts- to cut off
412. *-k’ad- to stay, stop
413. *-k’ǎdl- to cut
414. *-k’ǔudl- to go out; send out, drive out
415. *-k’âf-, *-k’âaf- to harden, form a crust
416. *-k’ǎh- to come away
417. *-k’êh- to bite off
418. *-k’aj- to seep out
419. *-k’al- to burn (tr.)
420. *-k’um-, *-k’uum- to grumble, sigh, make sounds of complaint
421. *-k’ǎn-/*-k’ǐŋ-, *-k’ǎŋ-/*-k’ǐŋ- to grasp
422. *k’ōoŋ- skin
423. *-k’ar- to last, endure
424. *k’ār- tip, peak, point
425. *-k’ĕer-/*-k’ǒor- to cut into
426. *-k’ûur-/*-k’âar- to become covered, go under cover
427. *-k’âas- to divide
428. *k’os- bone
429. *-k’ĕes’- to give off heat or light
430. *-k’ǎt-/*-k’ǐt- to go down, decline
431. *-k’ât’- to cut
432. *-k’ûtl’- to cut up
433. *-k’ey- to excrete (Eg., Sem. innovation: addition of *ʔ concisive to denote short, concentrated outflow, hence vomiting)
434. *-k’uʔ- to rise
435. *-k’oʕ- to bend (joint of body) (tr.)
436. *-kʷ’-̌ to eat
437. *-kʷ’- to be wet
438. *akʷ’- water (*a- attrib. n. pref. + root #437)
439. *-kʷ’- to be thin
439. *kʷ’an- thin (stem + *n adj. suff.)
440. *-kʷ’ǎdl- to bite
441. *-kʷ’aḥ- to pound
442. *-kʷ’ǎl- to call (Sem., Eg. innovation: narrowing of application of v. to angry calling out)
443. *-kʷ’al- to make repetitive movements
444. *-kʷ’îl-/*-kʷ’âl- to strip, tear off in strips
445. *kʷ’ilf-/*kʷ’ǎlf- to cover (Sem., Cush, innovation: > n. 'covering' > 'rind, bark')
446. *-kʷ’aɬ- to look for selectively
447. *-kʷ’am- to curve
448. *-kʷ’an- to hit repeatedly
449. *kʷ’ânḥ- egg (root #447+ *ḥ iter.; semantics: egg curves at every point?)
450. *-kʷ’îr-/*-kʷ’âr- to take a bite or swallow
451. *-kʷ’aat’- to wet down (root #437 + *t’ dur. intens.)
452. *-kʷ’ǎatl’- to swallow (root #437 + *tl’ foc.)
453. *-kʷ’ǎayt’- to look at
454. *-kʷ’ǎz- to avoid, avoid doing (Eg., Sem. innovation: meaning shift, from avoiding per se to feeling a need or reason to avoid)
455. *-dzac- to fear
456. *-dzaadl-, *-dzaatl’- to make empty, clear
457. *-dzâaɣ- to pierce
458. *-dzik’-/*-dzak’- to throw down
459. *-dzǎm- to get wet
460. *dzar- pole
461. *dzixʷ- salt
462. *-dzaʔ- to walk
463. *-jâb- to put apart, separate (tr.)
464. *-jaf- to trickle, drip, seep
465. *-jek- to scratch itch
466. *jok’- point, tip (of anything)
467. *-jool- to pull off
468. *jûl- little, small
469. *-jôyʔ- to pass over, go over
470. *ji, *dzi one, someone somebody (indef. pron.)
471. *-jiɣ-, *-dziɣ- to be strong
472. *-jǎḥ-, *-dzaḥ- to hit repeatedly
473. *j-ḥ-, *dz-ḥ- hut
474. *-jaal-, *-dzaal- to overflow
475. *-jǎam-, *-dzǎam- to step
476. *-jêr-/*-jôr-, *-dzer-/*-dzor- to convey, make move
477. *-jâw-, *-dzâw- to wear out, be used up, cease to function
478. *-jǎaw-, *-dzâaw- to sip
479. *jiʔ-, *dziʔ- child, offspring
480. *-jaʕ-, *-dzaʕ- to kill (animal)
481. *-jiʕ-, *-dziʕ- to spill out (intr.)
482. *-ts- (*ts-, *âts-) here/there
483. *îts- brother (Eg., Cush., Ch. innovation: stem + *n n. suff. > *itsan-; Omotic innovation: stem + *m n. suff.: *itsim-)
484. *-tsul-/*-tsal- to disapprove (2nd root shape: possible old tr. derivation by addition of *-u- tr. infix)
485. *tsim-/*tsam- fruit, seeds, foliage, plant growth in general
486. *-tsar- to burn low
487. *-tsur- to chatter
488. *-cab- to join (tr.), bring together (Ch., Sem. innovation: narrowing of meaning to particular kind of joining, by sewing)
489. *cĕec- to excrete
490. *-cag- to separate, set apart
491. *-câak- to stay still, stay in place
492. *cîl- stomach (?)
493. *-cār- to abound in water, be very wet
494. *-tsâab-, *-câab- to spoil, be ruined
495. *-tsob-, *-cob- to do wrong
496. *-tsǔb-, *-cǔb- to spill (tr.)
497. *-tsâg-, *-câg- to rise
498. *-tsag-, *-cag-, *-tsaag-, *-caag- to not move, be at rest
499. *-tsîk’-/*-tsâk’-, *-cîk’-, *-câk’- to pluck out, pluck off
500. *-tsoon-, *-coon- to smell
501. *tsuun-, *cuun- hair, especially pubic hair
502. *-tsǎŋ-, *-cǎŋ- to split in two, split one from the other
503. *tsan-, *can- two (proposed source: #502, with regular PAA *ŋ > PBA *n; Eg., Berber, Sem. innovation: as synonym for #505)
504. *-tsar-, *-car- to grasp
505. *tsîr(n)-, *cîr(n)- two (vowel reconstruction uncertain: PAA *u, *ee, or *oo are also possible here; contrary to earlier views, this is surely a distinct root from #503)
506. *-šab- to strike (with an implement)
507. *-šob- to immerse, apply water to
508. *-šad- to extend (lengthwise)
509. *-šoof- to scratch, scrape
510. *-šaḥ- to burn (tr.)
511. *-šooḥ- to wet down
512. *-šok- to cover
513. *-šîkʷ- to cut repeatedly
514. *-šuk’-, *-šukʷ’- to be beaten
515. *šuuk’-, *šuukʷ’- narrow, slim
516. *-šaal- to lap
516. *-šaalkʷ- to lick up (stem + *kʷ fin.)
517. *-šul-, *-šuul- to scratch
518. *-šun- to come close, come near
519. *-šeŋ- to be good
520. *šâp- earth, ground
521. *-šaap- to cry out
522. *-šup’- to abuse, revile
523. *-šĕr- to shift (position)
524. *-šoor- to feed
525. *-šǎawd- to wrap around
526. *-šǎy- to sparkle
527. *-šĕeʕ- to be scraped
528. *-šūʕ-/*-šāʕ- to smell (intr.)
529. *-s’êd- to be (dark-)colored
530. *-s’ig- to stay
531. *-s’uuɣ-, *-s’uuɣʷ’ to rub
532. *-s’ah- to pound (to loosen)
533. *-s’ik’-, *-s’ikʷ’- to come near
534. *-s’uk’-, *-s’ukʷ’- to strike (with tool, weapon)
535. *-s’ǎm- to sour
536. *-s’iink’-, *-s’iinkʷ’- to become weak
537. *-s’ēer- to lower, put low
538. *-s’at-/*-s’it- to cut into
539. *-s’at- to exude (Eg., Sem. innovation: shift to outflow of water, not from body; root *-s’a- seen in #540 + *t dur.)
540. *-s’aw- to flow (root *-s’a-, seen also in #539 preceding, + *w inchoative)
541. *s’iw- daylight, sunlight
542. *-s’aʔ- to drink up, slurp up (liquid)
543. *-s’âʕ-/*-s’îʕ- to burn (intr.)
544. *-s’iʕ- to draw out, pull out
545. *s’iʕ- hurry, haste
546. *-c’ǔb- to glow, burn low (2nd root shape *-c’aab- seen in PEC v. and Banna (SOm) 'white,' is not as yet satisfactorily accounted for)
547. *-c’of- to flow slowly
548. *-c’uf-/*-c’if- to tie together
549. *c’ohr- trash, residue, discarded materials
550. *c’ohr- lower back
551. *-c’aḥ- to dig
552. *-c’aḥ- to beat
553. *-c’uuk-/*-c’iik- to rub off
554. *c’îk’l- jaw
555. *-c’il- to darken, become dark colored
556. *c’ilm-/*c’alm- black (root #555 + *m adj. suff.)
557. *-c’aam- to rest
558. *-c’em- to become dark
559. *-c’iin- to observe
560. *-c’ep- to wait
561. *-c’ap’-/*-c’ip’- to drip
562. *-c’âr- to be clever
563. *-c’ar-/*-c’ir- to rise up
564. *c’irf-, *c’ifr- nail, claw
565. *-c’êyg- to shout
566. *-c’îʔ-, *-c’îiʔ- to convey
567. *-c’eʕ- to rise
568. *m- indefinite pronoun stem (one, someone, somebody)
569. *-m- (*-mǎ- ?) to be wet
569. *âm- water (*a- attrib. n. pref. + stem)
570. *-im- to come
571. *ma, *mi what?
572. *-ma- to not have
573. *-mâc- to walk swaying, move about disjointedly
574. *-mǎac- to immerse, flow over
575. *-mîc- to chew up
576. *-môoc-, *-môots- to turn (tr.)
577. *-mac’- to start
578. *-mâd-, *-mâad- to flow
579. *-moodz- to become wet
580. *-muɣʷ- to hit
581. *-mǎh-, *-mǎah- to not be able (to do) (root #572 + *h ampl.)
582. *-mǐḥ- to attack
583. *-maaḥ- to get wet (root #569 + *ḥ iter.)
584. *-muj-/-maj- to come forth, emerge, stick out
585. *-mak- to eat up
586. *-maak’-, *-maakʷ’- to come back, return
587. *-mal- to flow
587. *-mǎlḥ- to ooze, be viscous (stem + *ḥ iter.; semantics: flow out bit-by-bit)
588. *miil- thigh
589. *-mǎn- to lose, lack, be without (root #572 + + n non-fin.)
590. *-man-/*-mun-, *-maŋ-/*-muŋ-, *-maɲ-/*-muɲ- to tie up
591. *-mâr- to bind
592. *-mǎar- to be happy, fortunate, healthy
593. *-mǐr-/*-mǎr- to pass, pass by
594. *-mir-/*-mar- to take in the fingers
595. *-mur- to flow
596. *-mas- to become evening
597. *-mâat’- to trade, barter, sell, buy
598. *-matl’-/*-mitl’- to empty, empty out
599. *moots- baby
600. *-maaw- to die (root #572 + *w inchoat.; PS, Eg., Ch. innovation: integration of *t dur. into stem)
601. *-maxʷ- to move water about (root #570 + *xʷ extend. fort.?)
602. *-môxʷ- to bend
603. *-maʔ-/*-miʔ- to bend, fold (tr.)
604. *-māʔ-/*-mīʔ- to be wet
605. *-m-ʔ- to go toward
606. *-mǎaʕ- to eat
607. *-mǐʕ-/*mǔʕ- to handle
608. *nê(e) with
609. *ni of (genitive)
610. *-nǎb- to call
611. *-nǎf-/*-nǐf- to exhale
612. *-neg-, *-nag- to watch
613. *-nugʷ- to seep
614. *-neh- to be slight
615. *-noh- to bite into hungrily
616. *-nǐḥ-, *-nĕeḥ, *-nǐiḥ- to last, endure, abide
617. *-naj- to become low
618. *-nikʷ- to be deficient, little, or few
619. *-nok’- to run out (of water)
620. *-nuuk’- to suck
621. *nim-/*nam- person
622. *-naatl’- to call to
623. *-nuz- to join (tr.)
624. *-naʔ-, *-naaʔ- to scratch
625. *-nûʔ- to suck in, snuff (up)
626. *-naʕ- to be soft
627. *-naaʕ-/*-niiʕ- to go/come
628. *-noʕ- to scrape off
629. *-ŋoc’- to be damaged, not function right
630. *-ŋěd- to take (bit of food or drink) into the mouth
631. *-ŋodl- to grip tightly
632. *-ŋek’-/*-ŋok’- to look at intently
633. *-ŋal-/*-ŋ-l- to cry out
634. *-ŋaɬ- to fasten
635. *-ŋiɬ- to cut
636. *-ŋôm- to use the mouth (other than in eating)
637. *ŋaan- boy
638. *-ŋaat’- to spread (intr.)
639. *-ŋiit’- to darken
640. *-ŋaaw- to blaze (*ŋ is required by derived noun, root #641 following)
641. *-ŋîiwr- flames, firelight (root #640 + *r n. suff.)
642. *ŋaʕw- python (?)
643. *-ŋʷâɬ-, *-ŋʷâaɬ- to run or seep out
644. *-ɲiḥ- to shape to a point
645. *-ɲuuk’- to rub (Eg., Sem. innovation: 'to rub' > 'to scrape')
646. *-ɲer- to fear
647. *-ɲîr- to be frail
648. *-ɲīit’-/*-ɲāat’- to hurt, ache, be in pain
649. *-ɲaw- to come to, arrive at (*ŋ and *a are reconstructed because they are required in derived root #651 below)
650. *-ɲaw- to be moist, damp
651. *-ɲawr- to move toward, come toward (#649 + *r diffus.; semantics: from closed- to open-ended action)
652. *-ɲoxʷ- to hold in the mouth
653. *-ɲay- to speak loudly
654. *-ɲay-/*-ɲaw- to rise, swell, expand
655. *ɲâʔ- light, slight
656. *-ɲîʕ- to rise (in elevation), swell (in size)
657. *k’âɲ- yellow
658. *-z-ɲ- to open
659. *-nah-, *-ŋah-, *-ɲah- to avoid
660. *-noh-, *-ŋoh-, *-ɲoh- to cry out
661. *-naxʷ-, *-ŋaxʷ-, *-ɲaxʷ- to surprise
662. *-ŋêep’-, *-ɲêep’- to stick one thing into another
663. *-ʕâb- to shine
664. *-ʕob- to take a swallow
665. *-ʕǔc- to swallow liquid or soft food
666. *-ʕac’- to repeat, do again
667. *ʕîd- to raise, lift
668. *ʕid- person
669. *-ʕǔdl- to grip
670. *-ʕudl-, *-ʕuudl- to cut off
671. *-ʕadz- to be wrong, bad, ill; do or function wrongly
672. *-ʕaaf- to see
673. *-ʕǐf-/*-ʕǔf-/*-ʕǎf- to utter
674. *-ʕǎg- to take a mouthful
675. *ʕâag- grain (Eg., Ch. innovation: *ʕâagaw- 'cooked grain,' stem + *w n. suff.)
676. *-ʕaj-/*-ʕij- to bite
677. *-ʕǎak-, *-ʕǎakʷ- to attack
678. *-ʕik’-/*-ʕak’- to rise up
679. *-ʕal- to ascend, go up
680. *ʕal- jaw
681. *-ʕil- to move to and fro
682. *-ʕâam- to raise; tip of anything
683. *-ʕīm- to apply, put into effect
684. *-ʕôom- to stop (intr.)
685. *-ʕǎn-, *-ʕǎŋ- to bend, turn
686. *-ʕan-, *-ʕaan- to come into view, appear
687. *-ʕâan- to seep (of bodily fluid)
688. *-ʕôn- to swallow
689. *ʕǎŋ-/*ʕǐŋ- tip, peak, top
690. *-ʕanɣʷ- to rise, grow (root #689 + ɣʷ comp.)
691. *-ʕĕŋ- to move in a confused manner
692. *-ʕūp-/*-ʕīp- to convey, make move
693. *-ʕar- to become still
694. *ʕarf- cloud (root #695 + *f iter.? If so, semantics are unclear)
695. *-ʕir- to be raised; sky
696. *-ʕǒr-/*-ʕĕr- to burn brightly (intr.)
697. *ʕûur- strength
698. *-ʕis- to be(come) heavy
699. *-ʕǎs’- to burn (intr.?)
700. *-ʕiš-/*-ʕuš- to stick up
701. *-ʕat-/*-ʕit-/*-ʕut- to stop (tr.?)
702. *-ʕat’- to present
703. *-ʕatl’- to become fat, thick
704. *-ʕâts- to ask for, beg
705. *-ʕīts- to stop (tr.)
706. *-ʕâyg- to go down
707. *-ʕuz- young
708. *-ʕâʕ- to cry
709. *-ʔaab-/*-ʔiib- to burn, give off heat, glow
710. *-ʔabz-/*-ʔibz- to blaze (root #709 + *z intens. of manner)
711. *-ʔǐb- to sit, stay
712. *-ʔadl- to act in anger
713. *-ʔûuf- to blow
714. *-ʔǎg-, *-ʔǎgʷ- to arrange
715. *-ʔaɣ-, *-ʔaaɣ- to be satisfactory
716. *-ʔah-, *-ʔaah- to moan
717. *-ʔâakʷ- to burn (of fire); fire (n.)
718. *ʔâl- base of neck
719. *ʔîl- oath
720. *-ʔîl-/*-ʔal- to see
720. *ʔǐl- eye
721. *-ʔoɬ- to speak loudly
722. *-ʔâm- to heat
723. *-ʔam- to intend
724. *ʔân-/*ʔîn-, *ân-/*în- I
725. *ʔǎnn-/*ʔǐnn-, *ǎnn-/*ǐnn- we (pl. of #724 by adding *-(a)C- where C = preceding stem-final C, is implied in Eg. reflex)
726. *ʔîns- one, someone, person (indef. pron.) 767
727. *ʔânt-/*ʔînt-, *ânt-/*înt- you (sing.)
728. *-ʔânxʷ- to listen; ear (root #723 + *xʷ extend. fort.; *m > /n/ ([ŋ])/_*xʷ)
729. *-ʔâr- to know
730. *-ʔark’- to notice, become aware of (root #729 + *k’ intens. of effect)
731. *-ʔaš- to walk; leg
732. *-ʔāat to set out for
733. *ʔâts- body
734. *ʔǎw- tall, high, long, big
735. *ʔâayš- flesh, meat
736. *-ʔaz- to hold
737. *-ʔaz- to bite
738. *-ḥâb-/*-ḥûb- to hold
739. *-ḥaab- to speak out, proclaim
740. *-ḥǎc-/*-ḥîc- to rub against
741. *-ḥâc’- to curve, bend round
742. *-ḥêd- to become fat, grow
743. *-ḥudl-, *-ḥuudl- to twist (tr.)
744. *-ḥaf- to lay
745. *-ḥaɣ- to feint, make as if to do
746. *-ḥeek-, *-ḥeekʷ- to go down
747. *-ḥâm-/*-ḥîm- to strip away (hair, skin, etc.)
748. *-ḥam- to spoil (intr.) (Sem., Eg. innovation: to spoil > to sour)
749. *-ḥam- to warm up
750. *-ḥin-/*-ḥan- to set out, lay out, put into use
751. *-ḥînk-/*-ḥânk- to carry (to or from) (root #750 + *k dur.)
752. *-ḥōn- to stick up, project, protrude
753. *-ḥuun-/*-ḥiin-/*-ḥaan- to bite into
754. *-ḥap- to take hold of
755. *-ḥup-, *-ḥuup- mouthful
756. *-ḥap’- to hasten
757. *-ḥĕr- to scrape off
758. *-ḥâs’- to feel bad
759. *-ḥetl’-/*-ḥotl’- to scratch
760. *-ḥâw- to hack
761. *-ḥ-y-/*-ḥ-w- to travel
762. *-ḥâaz- to cut into
763. *-ḥîz- to increase in size or amount (intr.)
764. *-ḥôz- to dig
765. *-ḥôʔ- to spill (intr.)
766. *-ḥěʕ-, *-ḥĕeʕ- to be weak
767. *h- this/that (demons., base)
767. *ha this/that one
768. *hâa open ground, area outside residence
769. *-hu-, *-huu- to fall
770. *-hab- to beat, strike with weapon
771. *-hǎad- to move along, proceed (Sem., Eg. innovation: move > move toward)
772. *-hǐd-, *-hǐid- to drive
773. *-h-d- to rest
774. *-hǒj- to wet down
775. *-hâl-/*-hîl- to cry, call out
776. *hāl-/*hīl- other (probably demon., root #767+ *l n./adj. suff.)
777. *-hal- to become thoroughly wet, pour heavily (intr.)
778. *-heel- to grip, take hold of
779. *-hâm- to go away
780. *-ham-, *-haam- concern
781. *-hom- to take into the mouth
782. *-hûum- to lower
783. *-hǎp- to put up, put above
784. *-hip’- to rub
785. *-hup’- point, tip
786. *har- flow (n.)
787. *-har-, *-haar- to cut into
788. *-hǎr- to become lit
789. *-her-/*-hor- to go rapidly on foot
790. *-hur- to feel good
791. *-haas- voice (Sem., Eg. innovation: addition of *b extend., imputing meaning 'to count')
792. *haas’- sand
793. *-hes’- to sing
794. *-hat’- to overflow
795. *-hâat’- to come toward
796. *-hatl’- to stop (intr.)
797. *-hâys’- to lap
798. *hǎz- flow (n.)
799. *-hôoz- to speak
800. *-heeʔ- to convey
801. *-hooʔ- to burn, become hot
802. *-hǎʕ- to arrive
803. *la at, to
804. *-lâ-/*-lî- to be moist, damp
805. *-lâa- to strike down
806. *lǒ true
807. *-lîb-, *-lîib- to sit
808. *-lib- to lap
809. *līb- heart
810. *-lib-/*-lab- to burn (intr.)
811. *-lâf- to rise
812. *-lef- to wrap, fold
813. *legʔ- bull (?)
814. *-lâgʷ-, *-lâagʷ- to speak
815. *-laaɣ- to turn, turn back, change direction
816. *-lîɣ-/*-lûɣ- to be raised
817. *-loh- to rise, go up
818. *-lĕḥ- to notice, pay attention
819. *-lěeḥ to come out
820. *laj-, *ladz- light (of fire, day)
821. *-lak- to hold with the tongue
822. *-lak’- to lap up
823. *-lâk’-/*-lâak’- to show, bring to (one’s) notice or attention
824. *-lǎm-/*-lǐm- to move
825. *-lep’- to move along
826. *-laas- to become weak, be in a weakened state
827. *-lis’- to lick (Ch., Berber, and Eg. shared innovation: *aləs-/*iləs- 'tongue': *a-/*i-attrib. n. pref. + stem; PS *lisn 'tongue' is a separate and distinct derivation from the same verb root)
828. *-laš- to hold onto
829. *-l-t’- to splatter
830. *-laaw- to pick up
831. *-lǎax- to increase (intr.) (Sem., Eg., Ch. innovation: 'increase' > 'grow in size')
832. *-lôxʷ- to move toward
833. *-lâygʷ- to trickle (root #804 + *y inchoat. + *gʷ dur.)
834. *-liʕ- to shine
835. *-liʕb- to move (tr.), convey
836. *dlâ/*dlî call, cry (n.)
837. *-dlâ- to grow, swell
838. *-dlab-/*-dlib- to put the hand to
839. *-dlabʕ-/*-dlibʕ- to stretch out (intr.) (root #838 + *ʕ part.; Sem., Eg. innovation: narrowing of meaning to tr. stretching out of arms)
840. *-dlib- to suffer loss, be damaged
841. *-dlaf-/*-dluf- to rise above
842. *-dlêf-/*-dlôf- to flow out
843. *-dleg- to pay attention to
844. *-dlog- to be bent, curved
845. *-dlōogʷ-/*-dlēegʷ- to call out
846. *-dlah- to heat
847. *-dlaḥ- to swell
848. *-dl-kʷ- to go bad
849. *-dleek’- to squeeze
850. *-dlôkʷ’- to push
851. *-dlum- to be finished, ended, made useless
852. *-dlâp’-/*-dlîp’- to descend, go down
853. *-dlǎp’-/*-dlǐp’- to pay
854. *-dlāp’-/*-dlīp’- to set on top of (Sem, Eg., Ch., Cush, innovation: 'set on top of' > 'cover')
855. *-dlir- to harm
856. *-dl-̂r- to cut
857. *-dlay-/*-dlaw- to bite
858. *-dlaʔ- to go from
859. *-dlǎʔ- to decline, become low
860. *-dliiʔ- to expand
861. *-dleʕ-/*-dloʕ- to feel weak, be worn out
862. *-âaɬ- to burn (intr.)
863. *-ɬě- to stand up, get up (Sem., Eg. innovation: addition of *w inchoative to stem)
864. *-ɬâb- to grow, increase, add on
865. *-ɬâf- to live, grow
866. *-ɬǔf- to expand, increase (root #866 with *-u- tr. infix [also tonal shift as found in Chadic cases])
867. *-ɬuuf- to sip
868. *ɬâg- to be much, many
869. *-ɬǎɣ- to be excited, stirred up
870. *-ɬeeh- to shine (this root is included because #871 following derives from it)
871. *-ɬêeh- moon
872. *-ɬǎḥ- to burn (tr.)
873. *-ɬîiḥ- to scrape off
874. *-ɬǎakʷ- to pierce
875. *-ɬikʷ- to bite
876. *-ɬakʷ’- to become visible, emerge into view
877. *ɬâm- two
878. *-ɬǎam- to leave
879. *-ɬuum- to harm
880. *-ɬîŋ- to run out (of fluid)
881. *-ɬap-/*-ɬip- to go down, decline
882. *ɬap’-/*ɬip’- ribcage (distinct root from #809)
883. *-ɬup’- to burn (intr.)
884. *-ɬâr- to cover up
885. *-ɬǎw- to take (Eg., Sem. innovation: take > take out)
886. *-ɬow- to cover over
887. *ɬaʔ-, *ɬaaʔ- grassy area, low vegetation, scrub
888. *ɬǒʔ- cattle (sing. *iǒw- 'cow') (Eg., Sem. innovation: generalization of pl. to domestic animals in general, then narrowing in PS and Eg. to different specific animals)
889. *ɬ-ʔr-, *ɬ-rʔ- hair (possible vowel reconstructions: *a, *aa, *e, or *o)
890. *-ɬêʕ- to cut off
891. *ɬaʕf-/*ɬiʕf- to claw, paw
892. *-tl’ab- to stick into
893. *-tl’ab-/*-tl’ub- to make quick movements
894. *-tl’ab- to spill, pour
895. *-tl’af- to turn (tr.)
896. *-tl’eeɣ- to stick out or up
897. *-tl’iiɣʷ- to descend, go down
898. *-tl’ih- to run away, flee (from); to chase
899. *-tl’âḥ- to be loud, exuberant
900. *-tl’ôoḥ- to join (intr.)
901. *-tl’ikʷ-/*-tl’akʷ- to fool
902. *-tl’ok’- to beat
903. *-tl’ook‘- to rub
904. *-tl’akʷ’-/*-tl’ikʷ’- to ooze, be thick (of fluid matter)
905. *-tl’âl- to burn, make hot
906. *-tl’âl- to wet down
907. *-tl’il- to clench the teeth
908. *-tl’im-/*-tl’um- to ooze, be viscous
909. *-tl’in- to rise
910. *-tl’ip-/*-tl’up- to hit (Sem., Ch. innovation: semantic narrowing to hitting with the hand)
911. *-tl’etl’- to fix the eyes upon
912. *-tl’aw-/*-tray- to split (tr.)
913. *-tl’ow- to flow
914. *-tl’uw- to rise
915. *-tl’āy- to produce or apply fluid
916. *tl’ayŋ- moisture, wetness, wet matter (root #915 + *ŋ n. suff.)
917. *-tl’iy- to set down, lower
918. *-tl’ǐz- to raise
919. *tl’-̌z- tall, high, long (probable *tl’iiz-, adj. < v. in #918 by V > VV; occurrence of PSC *ee (or *e?) for expected *ii probably reflects phonetic influence of PC root in #254)
920. *-tl’ôz-, *-tl’ûz- to glow
921. *-tl’oʔ- to grab
922. *-tl’aʕ- to strike (with implement)
923. *-tl’iiʕ- to blow
924. *ar- at, by
925. *ra/*ri wet place
926. *-râ-, *-râw- to continue, keep on
927. *-rab- to be destroyed, perish
927. *-rǔb- to destroy, kill (many?) (tr. by *-u- infix)
928. *-rǒb-/*-rěb- to put above
929. *-roob- to tighten by twisting
930. *-ruub- to send (Sem., Eg. innovation: 'send' > 'direct,' hence 'command, rule')
931. *-r-d- to walk (Agaw *a allows PAA vowel reconstructions *a, *aa, *o, or *e)
932. *-r-̂dl- to flow out
933. *-râf-/*-rîf- to break off, detach
934. *-reg-/*-rog- to increase (in size or quantity) (tr.)
935. *-rig-/*-rag- to move (intr.), walk
936. *-râɣʷ- to pierce
937. *-rǐh-/*-rǎh- to go down, lower oneself
938. *-ruk- to bend (intr.)
939. *-rǐk’-, *-rǐkʷ’- to bend down
940. *-rep- to strike
941. *-rip- to tie together; to sew
942. *-rǎw-/*-rǎy- to rise
943. *-reyb- to stop (doing)
944. *rǐiz- foot
945. *-rǔz- to become lost
946. *-rûʔ- to stick up
947. *-raaʕ- to move along
948. *-raaʕ- to be raised
949. *wa-/*wi- what?
950. *-wêeb- to burn (intr.)
951. *-wĕc- to be hard, solid (Sem., Eg. innovation: added meaning 'firm,' hence, figuratively, 'firmly established, strong')
952. *-wǎc’- to pass
953. *-wic’- to swallow
954. *-wad- to move (tr.)
955. *-wadl- to flow
956. *-wadl- to turn back, bend back (tr.)
957. *-wǎadl- to leave abruptly
958. *-wǎag- lower face
959. *-waag- to despise
960. *-wâḥ- to cut
961. *-wâḥ- to look
962. *-waaḥ- to keep on, continue
963. *-wâj- to grow in size
964. *-wǐj- to intertwine, to bind by twining together
965. *-wak- to cut apart
966. *-wǎk’-, *-wěk’-, *-wǎkʷ’- to separate husk, rind, chaff, etc.
967 *-wek’- to burn (intr.)
968,. *-wel-, *-wal- to go round
969. *-wil- to hasten, hurry
970. *-wan- to open (tr.)
971. *-wap’- to be above, be at the top, form the tip or peak
972. *-war-/*-wir- to call out
973. *war- light
974. *-wǎr-/*wǐr- to grow (person, animal)
975. *-waar- to soak (intr.)
976. *-wir- to turn (intr.)
977. *-wis- to fall asleep (Sem., Ch. innovation: derivation of v. 'to sleep' by addition of *n non-fin.)
978. *-wiš- to form dirt, rubbish
979. *-wetl’- to destroy
980. *-wīitl’ to stand
981. *-wits-, *-wic- to twist (tr.)
982. *-wax- to look at
983. *-wayn- to grow (root seen also in #984 + *n non-fin.; Eg., Sem. innovation: 'grow' > 'live,' whence Eg. 'be, exist')
984. *-wǎys- to expand (root seen also in #983 + probably *s caus. as denom. with pre-PAA root *way thus having been a n. or adj.)
985. *wiz- organ of chest
986. *-wǎʔ-, *-wǎaʔ- to glow, burn (of fire)
987. *-wâaʔ- to get up to leave, start out, come or go forth
988. *-wāʕ- to grasp, take hold of
989. *-wǎʕ- to run, run out (fluid)
990. *-waaʕ- to yell
991. *-yo- to say
992. *-yab- to protect
993. *-yed- to grasp (Eg., Sem. innovation: derivation of n. for 'hand')
994. *-yǔf- to swell
995. *-yagʷ- to come out
995. *-yugʷ- to put out (root with *-u- tr. infix)
996. *-yah- to respond, speak out in response (Eg., Sem. innovation: narrowing of meaning to loud kinds of response)
997. *-yak- to rise
997. *-yuk- to raise (root with *-u- tr. infix)
998. *-yakʷ-, *-yaakʷ- to conceal
999. *-yak’- to be aware of, knowledgeable about
1000. *yâl- mane
1001. *-yuɬ- to shout
1002. *yam- body of water
1002. *-yam- to submerge, go under water
1003. *-yaar- to grow (up), grow large
1004. *-yâw- to produce young
1005. *yaw-, *yawr- bull (2nd shape: stem + *r n. suff.; possible n. derivation < v. in #1004)
1006. *yaxʷ-/*yuxʷ- side
1007. *-yâʔ- to come
1008. *-yǎʔ- to drip
1009. *-yuʔ- to notice
1010. *-yaʕ- to die
1011. *i, *yi me, my (bound 1st-person sing. pronoun)


  • Ehret, Christopher. 1995. Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): vowels, tone, consonants, and vocabulary. University of California Press. →ISBN.
Vocabulary lists of African languages

Nilo-Saharan • p-Nilo-Saharan • p-Nilotic (p-E. Nilotic • p-S. Nilotic) • p-Surmic • NE Sudanic • p-Nubian • Nara • p-Daju • p-Jebel • Temein • Central Sudanic (p-Central Sudanic • p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi • Sinyar • Birri • p-Mangbetu) • p-Kuliak (Ik) • Kadu • Berta • Kunama • Gumuz • p-Koman • Gule • Amdang • Mimi-D • p-Maban • Mimi-N • Kanuri • p-Songhay • Tadaksahak


p-Niger-Congo • p-Benue-Congo • p-Grassfields • p-Ring • Momo • Tivoid • Ekoid • Beboid • Bendi • p-Bantu (Swadesh list) • p-Kongo • p-Jukunoid • p-Plateau (p-Tarokoid) • p-N. Jos • p-Fali • p-Yoruboid • Olukumi • p-Edoid • p-Akokoid • p-Igboid • Akpes • Ayere-Ahan • p-Upper Cross River • p-Lower Cross River • Anaang • p-Ogoni • p-Ukaan • p-Nupoid • Oko • p-Idomoid • p-Ijaw • Defaka • p-Gbe (Fongbe) • p-Potou-Akanic • p-Mumuye • p-Jen • Yendang • Tula-Waja • p-Lakka • p-Bua • Kim • p-Central Togo • p-Guang • p-Gurunsi • p-Oti-Volta (p-E. Oti-Volta • p-C. Oti-Volta) •  Tiefo • Natioro • Bariba • p-Gbaya • Dogon • p-Mande (p-W. Mande • p-Mandekan • p-Niger-Volta • p-S. Mande) • Atlantic (Guinea) • p-Fula-Sereer • p-Cangin • p-Manjaku • Bijogo • p-Talodi • p-Heiban • p-Katloid • Rashad • Lafofa


p-Afroasiatic • p-Chadic • p-Ron • p-North Bauchi • p-South Bauchi • South Bauchi • p-Central Chadic • p-Masa • Kujarge • p-Cushitic • p-Agaw • p-Omotic • p-Aroid • p-Maji • Mao • p-Semitic


Khoisan • p-Khoe • p-Central Khoisan • p-Tuu • !Kung

Language isolates

Bangime • Jalaa • Laal • Ongota • Shabo • Sandawe • Hadza