Appendix:Proto-Katloid reconstructions

The following list of Proto-Katloid reconstructions is from Dimmendaal (2019).

PhonologyEdit

Reconstructed phonemes for Proto-Katloid:

Consonants
*p *t̪ *t *c *k *kw
*b (*d̪) *d *j *g *gw
*mb *nd *ɲj? *ŋg
*m *n
*l *h
*r
*y *w
Vowels ([-ATR] / [+ATR])
  • *ɪ / *i
  • *ʊ / *u
  • *ɛ / *e
  • *ɔ / *o
  • *a / *ʌ

PronounsEdit

Independent pronouns
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
1SG *ɲɔŋ ɲà(ŋ) ɲoŋ kɨ́dʌ̀, ʊ̀ŋʊ̀nɔ́wá
2SG *ŋàŋ ŋà(ŋ) ŋaŋ ŋààŋ
3SG *ŋùŋ ŋùŋ ŋuŋ pɨ́nʌ̀, *ŋùùŋ
1PL.EXCL *nen nèn nen ìnììn
1PL.INCL *ŋɛd̪ nèt ŋet ɪ̀nɛ̀ɛ̀y
2PL *nɔn nòn non ɪ̀nààn
3PL *ŋìŋ ŋìŋ ŋiŋ ìhìnʌ́, *ŋììŋ
Object enclitics
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
1SG *=ɲɔŋ ɲà(ŋ) -nyo(ŋ) =da/=dɔ,=dʌ̀
2SG *=ŋàŋ ŋà(ŋ), ŋò(ŋ -ŋa(ŋ) =ŋaŋ
3SG ? ŋùŋ -ŋu(ŋ)
1PL.EXCL *=nen nèn -nen =nin
1PL.INCL *=ŋɛ̀d̪ nèt -ŋet =nɛy
2PL *=nɔn nòn -non =nan
3PL ? ŋìŋ
Subject prefixes
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
1SG *ɲɔ- ɲa-, ɲo- ɲà- N-
2SG *ŋa- ŋà- ŋà- a-
3SG ? Ø- Ø- Ø-
1PL.EXCL *ne-? nè-, ndè- ɪ-, i-
1PL.INCL *i- ì- ì- ɪ-, i-
2PL *na- nà- nà- na-, nʌ-
3PL ? nɪ-, ni- ì- Ø-

AffixesEdit

Singular noun class prefixes
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
*kU- (underspecified for ATR) k- k- kV-, k-
*g- g- g-
*gw- gb- gb-
*p- ? ? p- (incorporated)
*t- ? ? t- (incorporated)
*c- (incorporated) (incorporated) c-
*m- (incorporated) m- (incorporated)
*bU- (underspecified for ATR) ba- ba- bV-
*dV- (d-) d- dV-
*lV- la- la- lV-
Plural noun class prefixes
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
*ɪ-/*i-, *y- ɪ-/i-, V- ɪ-/i-, Ø ɪ-/i-, y-
*a- a- a- (incorporated)
Agreement markers (demonstrative)
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
singular *gɪ-/*gi- g- nggi c-
plural ? a- ii ɪ-, i-
Agreement markers (pronominal possessive)
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
singular ? gɪ-/gi- ɉ-, nɉV-k- l-
plural ? ɪ-/i- i-k-
Agreement markers (adjective)
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
singular *gɪ-/*gi- gɪ-/gi-, (g)al- ga- kV-
plural *ɪ-/*i- ɪ-/i- Ø- ɪ-/i-
Agreement markers (numeral)
Proto-Katloid Katla Julut Tima
singular *gɪ-/*gi- gɪ-/gi- ? kɪ-/ki-
plural ? ? ? ɪ-, i-

LexiconEdit

Gloss Proto-Katloid Julut Katla Tima
arrive *-(c-)akɔ -ako -(c)ɔɔ
ashes *-ʊlɔk wolak g-ʊlak -lɔk
ask *-hɪgan- a-gan-a -a-gana -hɪyan-a
bark (dry), hide *kwah -kpo kwaah
bat *-babɔk -bɔbɔk -babɔk
bathe *-mbak -kambak -maak
bite *-lʊm -a-lm -a-lam- -lɘm
black *-tuɲ a-thuny -tuɲ -tun
blood *i-ju(u) ijü iju i-duu
blow nose *-ŋgɪr -ngɪr -ŋɨr-tʌ
body *g-ijo kijö gijo c-idʌ
breast *mVndi minji -monji –mindi
bull *-mbul mbul -muul
buy *-ogil -ogil -eel
call, address *-t̪an- tono -t̪ana -t̪an
call, alert *-ɽɔrɔ -ɽɔrɔ ‘alert’ ʌɽuuruk ‘shouting’
charcoal *-liŋkilʌŋ linggiling -lingilʌŋ -liŋkiliŋ
chop, cut *-tɛ -tɛ -tɛtɛ
clean, clear *-dɪl -dɪl -dɪʔɪl
climb *-dVŋ- -dhinge -daŋɛ -dɪŋ
close *-rɛh -rɛɛ -rɨh
collect, gather *-cVm- -cam- camɛ - cɪm
cook porridge *-kwaka- -kaka(k) -kwɔyɔ(ɔk)
count *-(k-)alʊ -kʌlo -alʊ
cover *-dɪm -dɪmt̪aŋ -dɪm
dance (v.) *-a-gɔ -ago -agʊ -yɔɔ
destroy *-cakal -cakal ‘undo, take apart’ -akal
diarrhoea *-aajʊ -ɔɔjɔ -aadʊ
die *-bul- -bul- -bulʌk- -bul-
dig (holes for planting) *-a-bʊ äbät -abʊ -abʊ, -ʌbu
dog *g-uu g-uu k-uu
dried meat *dɛdɛ dhedhe dɛdɛɛ -dɛdɛ
drink *-mbɔk- -bok- -a-bʊk- -mɔ-(ɔk)
dry season *-wɔrac ɔrac -waarɘh
eat *-ʌ-lV- -ol -olʌk- -ʌlV-
ear *-ɔnɔ gunuk -ʊnʊ -ɔnɔ
earth *-hɪ ii -ɪɪ -hɪ
elephant *-mɔmaɲ mamany mɔmaɲ -mʌmɨn
excrement *gɪ-ŋɪ ngi gɪŋɪ ci-ŋi
eye *g-ɪgɛd̪ kigit gigʌt̪ c-ɪɪ(d̪)
eyebrow *g-ilʌlid̪ gilʌl ki-lilii
far *-hara -ʌrʌ -hara
feather, leaf *g-abal raba g-abal ‘fur, body hair’ -kabɘl
fetch, take *-man -manɪ -mɘn
fill *-t̪Vb- -t̪aba-k -t̪ib-
find, meet with *-mʌn- mʌni -umun-
fire *-ŋɪ gingi gɪɲɪ -ŋɪ
fish *-mɔŋ gumung -umuŋ -mɔŋ
follow, pursue *-lɔl- -lolo -lɔlɔ -lala
forge (iron) *-a-bal- -abal -abal -bɘl
forget, lose *-bɔkal a-bokal -bakal -bɔɔl
friend *-bɔŋ bobong bɔɔŋ -bʌʌŋ
frog, toad *-ŋgɔk kɪŋgɔk -ŋɔɔk
giraffe *-hu K.-uku –hu
give *-a-hɪ- -ɔɔ- -ahɪ-
go (with) *-ay- -aj- -ɛɛŋ ‘go with/carry’ ay-
grind *-ʌni oni -oni -eeni
grinding stone *gɪ-t̪ɪ geti g-ɪt̪ɪ kɪ-t̪ɪ
gum arabic *mbarac mbʌɾʌc mɘɽah mɘɽah ‘sticky like gum’
hair *g-agam kagam gagam k-aam
hare *rɛd̪ rethet rɛt̪ɛt̪ K. -rɛy
head *g-ac gaj gac k-aah
hedgehog *-ɲahʊɲa(k) nyoknyok -ɲɔɲɔ -ɲahʊɲa
hold (alsomarry’) *-kʊdʊ- -kodho -kadʊ -kʊdʊ-
horse *mbərtaka mbərtaka -mɘrtaa
hot *-dʊl dʊl -dʊʔal
hunt *(k)-otuk -kotukK. -ʌtuk-
insult *-mʌn o-mʌn –mun
know *-a-hɪ -a-y- -hɪ-
ladle, spoon *gwɔnɔk gbanak gbʌnʌk ‘cooking stick’ kwɔnɔ (sporadic loss of *k) ‘quirl’
land *-hɪ ii -ɪɪ -hɪ
laugh *-dɪyaŋ janga -jaŋa -dɪyana
lie down *-ʌt̪- -ö-ti- -ot̪i -ʌt̪-
lift *-a-wʊt ɔɔtɪ -wʊt-
live, reside, stay *-hɪl(-ak) -olʌk -hɘl-ak
lizard *-lɔlɔh lɔlɔ -lalah
look *-ŋah ngo -ŋoo -ŋah
lose, get lost *-bɔkal -bokal -bakal -bɔɔl ‘lost, dead’
lung *-wut̪wut̪ ut̪ut̪ pʌt̪pʌt̪
make, form *-aw-a -awa -aw-a
marry (alsohold’) *-kʊdʊ- -kodo -kadʊ -kʊdʊ-
meat (muscle) *g-aɓac kabaj g-abac k-ábʊ̀h
milk (n.) *-hɪ(a?) ä ɪa -hɪ
milk (v.) *(a)-ɪh- -a -aa -ɪh-
mouth *-ŋɛŋ ngeng -ŋɛŋ -ŋɛ
move, walk *-di- J.-j- -jo -di-/-ji-
move here, come *di-ʌŋ jaŋaŋ -j-an-aŋ ‘always come’ -diyʌŋ
mud *gw-ɔlɔ gbɔlɔ k-ʌʌlu
oil *-hɪɓa ibo ibo -hɪɓa
old *-hɪn agin -ɪɪn -hɪn
pass by *-takʊ- -takʊ t-ɔɔ
pluck, extract *-t̪uh -thok -t̪uh-(ʌk)
porcupine *g-aga gaga k-aa
quiet *-kwak (probably reduplicated) kpakpak kʊkwak
rain, sky *-wɔtak wätäk ɔtak -aaɽɘk
rat *-hun gun g-un -hun
ripe, ready *-goju -goju -ʌdu
roast *-ʌ-buc -kobucʌŋ -ʌbuh
sand *jɔjɔ jojo jɔjɔ
satisfied/satiated, be *-mɔn- -ɔmɔnK. -mʌn
say, suggest *-dɔh K.-dɔɔk -dah
sauce *-t̪an a-tan at̪an -t̪an
send *-hɪl- -ʊʊlt̪akak -hɪl
shadow, shade *gɪ-lɪlɪ gili gɪlɪ K. kɪ-lɪɪlɪ
shave *-ʌgi -agi –ogi -ʌyi-
sheep *-aŋgal kanggal kaŋgal -aŋal
shoe *gw-aja kpaja gbʌjʌ k-ʊda
sip *-mʌm- -mumu -mʌmu
small, young *-tɛŋ -tɛ, -tɛʔɛŋ
smooth *mbɛlɛmbɛlɛd̪ mbelembelet̪ -mɘlɛɛmɘlɛy
snake *-minok -minok minok -mɨnʌ
sorghum *-ɛh -ɛɛh
spear (type) *gw-ɔlac golaj gbɔlac k-ʌlɨh
step on *-t̪ʌb- -t̪ʌbot̪ʌŋ -t̪ɘb-
straight *-tɛh -te -tɛh
strip off *-mɔcɔr -mɔcɔr -mɔcɔr
sugarcane *g-ogih gogi -ɨɨh
sun *-ne(e) gine gənɛ ki-nee
tail feather *dɪkɔŋ dɪkɔŋ -dukwʌŋ
take (something offered) *-gʊt-ɪ -giti -wʊtɪ/-kʊtɪ
tamarind *gwa gbak gbʌ kwaa
tell *-a-t̪a- -a-tan- -t̪a
testicle *-lɔlɔd̪ lolot̪ -lɔlɔy
thin *-ra(ʔ)araɲ rʌɾʌɲ -raʔarn
think *diŋdiŋ diŋdiŋ dindiŋ
tick *-bVbVc bʊbʊc -babah
throw *-tʊ(w)- -a-to -tʊw-a
tongue *-laŋɛd̪ lenget laŋɛt̪̪ -lʌŋiid̪/-lʌŋiiy
tooth *gɪ-lɛd̪ gelet gəlɛt̪ c-ɪlɛy
touch, feel *-dɔk- -dhoki -dɔkɪ -da(ak)-
wash, clean *-(k)am -kamak kambak -ama-
weed, clean (verb) *-ɔha gbɔɔ -ɔha
weeding (noun) *gw-ɔha ko k-ɔha
wide *-pʊl -fʊl -pʊlʊŋ
woman *g-ogunen -kogunen gogunen k-ʌhunen
yawn *-ma(a)m- -mamak -maamʊ
yesterday *kawlɔ kawlo kulʌ

ReferencesEdit

Vocabulary lists of African languages
Nilo-Saharan

Nilo-Saharan • p-Nilo-Saharan • p-Nilotic (p-E. Nilotic • p-S. Nilotic) • p-Surmic • NE Sudanic • p-Nubian • Nara • p-Daju • p-Jebel • Temein • Central Sudanic (p-Central Sudanic • p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi • Sinyar • Birri • p-Mangbetu) • p-Kuliak (Ik) • Kadu • Berta • Kunama • Gumuz • p-Koman • Gule • Amdang • Mimi-D • p-Maban • Mimi-N • Kanuri • p-Songhay • Tadaksahak

Niger-Congo

p-Niger-Congo • p-Benue-Congo • p-Grassfields • p-Ring • Momo • Tivoid • Ekoid • Beboid • Bendi • p-Bantu (Swadesh list) • p-Kongo • p-Jukunoid • p-Plateau (p-Tarokoid) • p-N. Jos • p-Fali • p-Yoruboid • Olukumi • p-Edoid • p-Akokoid • p-Igboid • Akpes • Ayere-Ahan • p-Upper Cross River • p-Lower Cross River • Anaang • p-Ogoni • p-Ukaan • p-Nupoid • Oko • p-Idomoid • p-Ijaw • Defaka • p-Gbe (Fongbe) • p-Potou-Akanic • p-Mumuye • p-Jen • Yendang • Tula-Waja • p-Lakka • p-Bua • Kim • p-Central Togo • p-Guang • p-Gurunsi • p-Oti-Volta (p-E. Oti-Volta • p-C. Oti-Volta) •  Tiefo • Natioro • Bariba • p-Gbaya • Dogon • p-Mande (p-W. Mande • p-Mandekan • p-Niger-Volta • p-S. Mande) • Atlantic (Guinea) • p-Fula-Sereer • p-Cangin • p-Manjaku • Bijogo • p-Talodi • p-Heiban • p-Katloid • Rashad • Lafofa

Afroasiatic

p-Afroasiatic • p-Chadic • p-Ron • p-North Bauchi • p-South Bauchi • South Bauchi • p-Central Chadic • p-Masa • Kujarge • p-Cushitic • p-Agaw • p-Omotic • p-Aroid • p-Maji • Mao • p-Semitic

Khoisan

Khoisan • p-Khoe • p-Central Khoisan • p-Tuu • !Kung

Language isolates

Bangime • Jalaa • Laal • Ongota • Shabo • Sandawe • Hadza

Others

p-Niger-Saharan