Appendix:Proto-Niger-Saharan reconstructions

Niger-Saharan, a language macrofamily linking the Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan phyla, was proposed by Blench (2006).[1] It is highly controversial and not accepted by mainstream linguistics.

ClassificationEdit

Typological featuresEdit

According to Blench (2006), typological features common to both Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan include:

  • Phonology: ATR vowel harmony and the labial-velars /kp/ and /gb/
  • Noun-class affixes: e.g., ma- affix for mass nouns in Nilo-Saharan
  • Verbal extensions and plural verbs

LexiconEdit

Proto-Niger-Saharan quasi-reconstructions proposed by Blench (2006):

Gloss Proto-Niger-Saharan Notes
arm, hand, shoulder #-bVkV
two, twins #-bale
hole, hollow #buru
white #bulu
tongue #deNe
throat, voice, neck #goro
thorn #kaN-
to count #kaNa
charcoal #kili
to go #ko
round, circle #koro
house, single room #-kul-
knee #kulu
navel, belly #kum
firewood #-kan(d)i
stone, hill #kur
four #naN
to build #tum
bone #-kub-
fat, oil, grease #mor-
to bite #-doNa
tooth #nyi
female breast #(m)ba(CV)
ten #-pu
word, to say #tarV
canoe #yɛtɪ
white #bV(n)t-
fire #isi
pig (wild types) #-kutu
dog #-si
tortoise, turtle #kuru
to cough #kpa ideophonic derivation
to fly, jump #pur- ideophonic derivation
be black #bi ideophonic derivation
child (give birth) #bi
to dance, sing, play #biŋ
come #ɓwoN
to cut, split #deŋ-
rat/mouse #-fil-
one #kVnV
die, kill #kui
buy, sell #la
to give #nyiN-
moon #paɲa
sand #-shishi
snake (generic) #soN-
kill, die #wu(Ru)
belly, stomach #bulV(k)
to bite #nduma
breast #mbora
buffalo #ŋara
earth, ground #bwiro
egg #kV-guri
elephant, rhino ?
to fall (as rain) #duri
fat #mora
five #turu
to know #ɲeli
navel #kombu
neck, to swallow #moro(k)
pool, water #tabar
red #bire(n)
roast, burn #fya
spread out to dry, stretch out #tara
to pour #tV(rV)
to pound #togo
to split, cut, break #keri Pan-African root
skin, hide #kulu Pan-African root
knee #kulu Pan-African root
tortoise, turtle #kuru Pan-African root
crab #kala Pan-African root

BibliographyEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Blench, Roger. 2006. The Niger-Saharan Macrophylum.
Vocabulary lists of African languages
Nilo-Saharan

Nilo-Saharan • p-Nilo-Saharan • p-Nilotic (p-E. Nilotic • p-S. Nilotic) • p-Surmic • NE Sudanic • p-Nubian • Nara • p-Daju • p-Jebel • Temein • Central Sudanic (p-Central Sudanic • p-Sara-Bongo-Bagirmi • Sinyar • Birri • p-Mangbetu) • p-Kuliak (Ik) • Kadu • Berta • Kunama • Gumuz • p-Koman • Gule • Amdang • Mimi-D • p-Maban • Mimi-N • Kanuri • p-Songhay • Tadaksahak

Niger-Congo

p-Niger-Congo • p-Benue-Congo • p-Grassfields • p-Ring • Momo • Tivoid • Ekoid • Beboid • Bendi • p-Bantu (Swadesh list) • p-Kongo • p-Jukunoid • p-Plateau (p-Tarokoid) • p-N. Jos • p-Fali • p-Yoruboid • Olukumi • p-Edoid • p-Akokoid • p-Igboid • Akpes • Ayere-Ahan • p-Upper Cross River • p-Lower Cross River • Anaang • p-Ogoni • p-Ukaan • p-Nupoid • Oko • p-Idomoid • p-Ijaw • Defaka • p-Gbe (Fongbe) • p-Potou-Akanic • p-Mumuye • p-Jen • Yendang • Tula-Waja • p-Lakka • p-Bua • Kim • p-Central Togo • p-Guang • p-Gurunsi • p-Oti-Volta (p-E. Oti-Volta • p-C. Oti-Volta) •  Tiefo • Natioro • Bariba • p-Gbaya • Dogon • p-Mande (p-W. Mande • p-Mandekan • p-Niger-Volta • p-S. Mande) • Atlantic (Guinea) • p-Fula-Sereer • p-Cangin • p-Manjaku • Bijogo • p-Talodi • p-Heiban • p-Katloid • Rashad • Lafofa

Afroasiatic

p-Afroasiatic • p-Chadic • p-Ron • p-North Bauchi • p-South Bauchi • South Bauchi • p-Central Chadic • p-Masa • Kujarge • p-Cushitic • p-Agaw • p-Omotic • p-Aroid • p-Maji • Mao • p-Semitic

Khoisan

Khoisan • p-Khoe • p-Central Khoisan • p-Tuu • !Kung

Language isolates

Bangime • Jalaa • Laal • Ongota • Shabo • Sandawe • Hadza

Others

p-Niger-Saharan