See also:
U+9152, 酒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9152

[U+9151]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9153]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 164, +3, 10 strokes, cangjie input 水一金田 (EMCW), four-corner 31160, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1281, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39776
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1779, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3574, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9152

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. 氿
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin edit

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (water) + (an alcoholic drink vessel) - the liquid associated with an alcoholic drink vessel - alcohol.

Also a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ʔsluʔ) : semantic (water, liquid) + phonetic (OC *luʔ).

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *jəw (liquor) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *luʔ, “wine; wine vessel”).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (13)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsjuwX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡siuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡suwX/
Li
Rong
/t͡siuX/
Wang
Li
/t͡sĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡si̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiǔ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zau2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsuʔ/
English wine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15554
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsluʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. alcoholic beverages in general; alcoholic drink
    幹嗎 [MSC, trad.]
    干吗 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ gànmá bù hē diǎn jiǔ? [Pinyin]
    How come you don't wanna have a sip of alcohol?
  2. (Cantonese) banquet (Classifier: c)
  3. a surname

Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しゅ) (shu)
  • Korean: 주(酒) (ju)
  • Vietnamese: tửu ()

Others:

  • Indonesian: ciu

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
さけ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

⟨sake2/sakəɨ//sake/

From Old Japanese (sake2),[1][2] from Proto-Japonic *sakay. Cognate with Proto-Ryukyuan *sake. Attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE, with the ideographic spelling .[2] Additionally, appears in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE and the Man'yōshū of c. 759 CE.[1][2] This is the standalone form of saka- below.

Various theories exist regarding the ultimate derivation:

  • Might be cognate with 栄え (sakae), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 栄える (sakaeru, to flourish).[3][4]
  • Might be derived from 避ける (sakeru, to ward off, to shun), from the idea that drinking sake would ward off cold diseases.[4]
  • Might be derived from or a corruption of (kushi, rice wine, rice vodka, sake); however, the phonological shifts required are completely unexplainable.[4]
  • The final -ke may be an apophonic form of Old Japanese (ki1).[4]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(さけ) (sake

  1. (impolite) any alcoholic beverage
  2. (especially) Synonym of 日本酒 (nihonshu): sake (Japanese rice wine)
  3. drinking, especially of alcoholic beverages
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit
Proverbs edit
Descendants edit
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
さか
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese (saka).[1] Likely the original form of sake above. Rarely used in isolation. Mostly used as the first element in compounds.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(さか) (saka

  1. Combining form of (sake, any alcoholic beverage; rice wine, rice vodka, sake)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
ささ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Originally a 女房詞 (nyōbō kotoba, literally women's word) term, possibly derived from reduplication of the first syllable sa from sake. Alternately, may be derived by metaphor from the Chinese-derived euphemism for sake, 竹葉 (chikuyō, literally bamboo leaves), as (sasa) refers to a type of short, leafy bamboo.[7][5]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ささ) (sasa

  1. (archaic) any alcoholic beverage, especially sake (Japanese rice wine)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
しゅ
Grade: 3
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC tsjuwX).

Noun edit

(しゅ) (shu

  1. an alcoholic drink, especially sake (Japanese rice wine)
Derived terms edit

Affix edit

(しゅ) (shu

  1. alcoholic drink
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Frellesvig, Bjarke, Stephen Wright Horn, et al. (eds.) (2023) “Old Japanese sake/saka”, in Oxford-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese[1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[2] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  3. ^ ”, in 世界大百科事典 第2版 (Sekai Dai-hyakka Jiten Dainihan, Heibonsha World Encyclopedia Second Edition)[3] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Heibonsha, 1998
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 酒/さけ”, in 語源由来辞典 (Gogen Yurai Jiten, Etymology Derivation Dictionary) (in Japanese), 2003–2024.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  6. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  7. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC tsjuwX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 쥬ᇢ〯 (Yale: cyǔw)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[5] (Yale: swùl) 쥬〮 (Yale: cyú)

Pronunciation edit

  • (alcoholic beverage; etc.):
  • (in 주정 (酒酊, jujeong)):
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕu(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (sul ju))

  1. Hanja form? of (alcoholic beverage). [affix]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [6]

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology edit

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Proto-Ryukyuan *sake, from Proto-Japonic *sakay. Cognate with mainland Japanese (sake).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(さき) (saki

  1. any alcoholic beverage (wine, whisky, sake, etc.)

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ さき【酒】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Old Japanese edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Japonic *sakay. Standalone form of saka- below.

Various theories exist regarding the ultimate derivation:

  • Might be cognate with 榮𛀁 (sakaye), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 榮ゆ (sakayu, to flourish).
  • Might be derived from 避く (saku, to ward off, to shun), from the idea that drinking sake would ward off cold diseases.
  • The final -ke2 may be the apophonic form of (ki1).

Noun edit

(sake2) (kana さけ)

  1. any alcoholic drink, especially a rice wine similar to modern-day sake
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:酒.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Japanese: (sake)

Etymology 2 edit

Likely the original form of sake2 above. Rarely used in isolation. Mostly used as the first element in compounds.

Noun edit

(saka) (kana さか)

  1. Combining form of (sake2, any alcoholic beverage; rice wine, rice vodka, sake)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “From Proto-Japonic *ki?”

Noun edit

(ki1) (kana )

  1. any alcoholic drink, especially a rice wine similar to modern-day sake
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 4 edit

Cognate with 奇し (kusi, strange, wondrous, miraculous), which is also the root for modern (kusuri, medicine).[1]

Noun edit

(kusi) (kana くし)

  1. any alcoholic drink, especially a rice wine similar to modern-day sake
    • 711–712, Kojiki, poem 32:
      [2]
      許能美岐波和賀美岐那良受久志能加美登許余邇伊麻須伊波多多須...
      ko2no2 mi1-ki1 wo waga mi1-ki1 narazu kusi no2 kami1 to2ko2yo2 ni imasu ipa tatasu...
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Tsuchihashi, Yutaka with Jin'ichi Konishi, Ichinosuke Takagi (1957) Kodai Kayōshū, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN

Vietnamese edit

Alternative forms edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: tửu ((tử)(dậu)(thiết))[2][3][1][4][5]
: Nôm readings: rượu[2][3][1][6], tửu[3][4][7], giậu[1]

  1. chữ Hán form of tửu (alcoholic beverage).
  2. Nôm form of rượu (rice alcohol).

Compounds edit

References edit