From Proto-Italic *kaidō, from Proto-Indo-European *keh₂id-, *kh₂eyd- (to cut, hew).

Cognates include Old High German heia (wooden hammer), Old Armenian խայթ (xaytʿ, sting) and Sanskrit खिदति (khídati, to tear, press).



caedō (present infinitive caedere, perfect active cecīdī, supine caesum); third conjugation

  1. I cut, hew, fell.
  2. I strike, beat.
  3. I kill, I murder.
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 5.772:
      tris Eryci uitulos et Tempestatibus agnam / caedere deinde iubet soluique ex ordine funem.
  4. I defeat decisively (defeat with heavy losses to the enemy side).
    • 27 BCE – 25 BCE, Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita libri 26.1:
      C. Sulpicio cui Sicilia euenerat duae legiones quas P. Cornelius habuisset decretae et supplementum de exercitu Cn. Fului, qui priore anno in Apulia foede caesus fugatusque erat.
      To Gaius Sulpicius to whom Sicily was allotted two legions which Publius Cornelius had held were decided upon and reinforcements from Gnaius Fulvius’ army, which in the previous year had been shamefully defeated decisively and put to flight in Apulia


   Conjugation of caedō (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present caedō caedis caedit caedimus caeditis caedunt
imperfect caedēbam caedēbās caedēbat caedēbāmus caedēbātis caedēbant
future caedam caedēs caedet caedēmus caedētis caedent
perfect cecīdī cecīdistī cecīdit cecīdimus cecīdistis cecīdērunt, cecīdēre
pluperfect cecīderam cecīderās cecīderat cecīderāmus cecīderātis cecīderant
future perfect cecīderō cecīderis cecīderit cecīderimus cecīderitis cecīderint
passive present caedor caederis, caedere caeditur caedimur caediminī caeduntur
imperfect caedēbar caedēbāris, caedēbāre caedēbātur caedēbāmur caedēbāminī caedēbantur
future caedar caedēris, caedēre caedētur caedēmur caedēminī caedentur
perfect caesus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect caesus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect caesus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present caedam caedās caedat caedāmus caedātis caedant
imperfect caederem caederēs caederet caederēmus caederētis caederent
perfect cecīderim cecīderīs cecīderit cecīderīmus cecīderītis cecīderint
pluperfect cecīdissem cecīdissēs cecīdisset cecīdissēmus cecīdissētis cecīdissent
passive present caedar caedāris, caedāre caedātur caedāmur caedāminī caedantur
imperfect caederer caederēris, caederēre caederētur caederēmur caederēminī caederentur
perfect caesus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect caesus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present caede caedite
future caeditō caeditō caeditōte caeduntō
passive present caedere caediminī
future caeditor caeditor caeduntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives caedere cecīdisse caesūrum esse caedī caesum esse caesum īrī
participles caedēns caesūrus caesus caedendus, caedundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
caedendī caedendō caedendum caedendō caesum caesū

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit


  • caedo in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • caedo in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • caedo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to slaughter victims: victimas (oxen), hostias (smaller animals, especially sheep) immolare, securi ferire, caedere, mactare
    • to fell trees: arbores caedere
    • to beat with rods: virgis caedere
    • to utterly rout the enemy: caedere et fundere hostem
    • to absolutely annihilate the enemy: hostes ad internecionem caedere, delere (Liv. 9. 26)
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 79-80