Muong

edit
Muong cardinal numbers
0 1  > 
    Cardinal : không

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

Borrowed from Vietnamese không.

Numeral

edit

không

  1. zero

Etymology 2

edit

From Proto-Vietic *k-roːŋ (river), from Proto-Mon-Khmer *ruŋ ~ ruuŋ ~ ruəŋ (river); cognate with Vietnamese sông.

Noun

edit

không

  1. (Mường Bi) river

Vietnamese

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from Chinese (empty, nothing, none). This is now the main negator in Vietnamese and, in formal writing, virtually the only negator; however, see the list of other negators at the end of the entry.

The grammaticalization of không into a negative particle began in the 17th century and coinced with the numerous arrivals of Western businessmen in Vietnam. Because the quantifier "zero" is often used in the context of business, a relationship between "zero" and the verbal particle không was established. The development from "empty, vacant" into the numeral "zero" can also been seen in many Min Nan varieties, as well as Korean (gong).

In the beginning of the 20th century, không replaced the original chief negator chẳng of native Vietnamese origin, coinciding with the establishment of French colonial rule over Vietnam.

Pronunciation

edit

Adverb

edit

không

  1. not (negates meaning of verb)
    Tôi không phải người Việt Nam.
    I am not Vietnamese.
  2. idly, without doing anything
    • 1936, Vũ Trọng Phụng, chapter 1, in Số đỏ, Hà Nội báo:
      – Một hào đấy! Bói rẻ còn hơn ngồi không.
      "Here you have a dime! A cheap fortune-teller is still better than sitting without anything to do."

Verb

edit

không

  1. not have; to lack

Adjective

edit

không

  1. without anything added
    cơm khôngonly rice

Interjection

edit

không

  1. (to an affirmative question) no
  2. (to a negative question) yes

Particle

edit

không

  1. at or near the end of a question, makes it a yes-no question
    Có ai ở nhà không (ạ) ?
    Anybody home?
    Đúng không ?
    Is that true?
    Mày chưa làm phải không ?
    You haven't done anything, have you?

Usage notes

edit
  • The interrogative expression không forms in most cases a yes-no question and encircles the verbal or adjectival predicate. is placed in front of the verb or adjective, and không comes at the end of the sentence. Such questions are "open" questions in the sense that there is no expectation of the behalf of the speaker that the answer will be "yes" or "no". The word order is: subject + + predicate + không? In informal communication, can be omitted. Such yes-no questions regularly permit the use of the repetition of as an affirmative answer form.
    A: Mấy đứa bạn anh (có) hay đi phượt không?
    B: Có.
    A: Do your friends often go on road trips on motorbikes?
    B: Yes.
    A: Anh (có) khoẻ không?
    B: Có.
    A: How are you?
    B: Good.
  • The interrogative expression có phảikhông also forms a yes-no question and encircles the nominal predicate and the predicate expressed by của, creating a yes-no question that tends to expect an affirmative answer. When encircling the nominal predicate, the equative (or linking) verb is used. When encircling the predicate expressed by của, then is optional.
    Các bạn anh có phải sinh viên không?Are your friends students?
    Cái máy vi tính này có phải (là) của bạn anh không?Does this computer belong to your friend?
    • For an affirmative response to a có phảikhông question, vâng is used at the beginning of the response. The negative reply may begin with either không or không phải.

See also

edit

Numeral

edit
Vietnamese cardinal numbers
0 1  > 
    Cardinal : không

không

  1. (cardinal number) zero
    hai nghìn không trăm lẻ mộttwo thousand and one (literally, “two thousand zero hundred zero one”)

Usage notes

edit
  • This morpheme is often reduced to a tone-bearing syllabic nasal [ŋ̍] in quick colloquial speech, especially in expressions such as không sao (no problem).

See also

edit