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HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Hindi होना (honā), from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀪𑁄𑀤𑀺 (bhodi), from Sanskrit भवति (bhavati, to happen, to become), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰew- (to grow, become, come into being, appear). Cognate with Nepali हुनु (hunu), Punjabi ਹੋਣਾ (hoṇā), Gujarati હોવું (hovũ), Marathi होणे (hoṇe), Bengali হওয়া (hoya). Other Indo-European cognates include Persian بودن (budan), Russian быть (bytʹ), English be, Latin fui, Spanish fui.

Present indicative forms are inherited from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀅𑀢𑁆𑀣𑀺 (atthi), from Sanskrit अस्ति (asti, to be). Compare Marathi असणे (asṇe), Konkani आसप (āsap).

Past forms came either from Sanskrit स्था (sthā) or स्तभ् (stabh). Compare Gujarati થવું (thavũ, to become).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

होना (honā) (Urdu spelling ہونا) (transitive, intransitive)

  1. to be
    • आपका नाम क्या है?āpkā nām kyā hai?What is your name?
    • तुम ग़ुस्से हो क्या?tum ġusse ho kyā?Are you angry?
    • खाना बहुत बुरा हैkhānā bahut burā hai.The food is very bad.
  2. to become
    • वह बहुत ग़ुस्सा हुआvah bahut ġussā huā.He became angry.
    • Synonyms: हो जाना (ho jānā)
  3. to exist
    • आस्तिक कहते है कि भगवान है
      āstik kahte hai ki bhagvān hai.
      Theists believe that God exists.
  4. to occur, happen
    • घर में एक मुसीबत हुइ हैghar mẽ ek musībat hui hai.A disaster has occurred at home.
    • क्या हुआ?kyā huā?What happened?
  5. to result, have an effect
    • अगर तू नहीं जीतती तो क्या हुआ?
      agar tū nahī̃ jīttī to kyā huā?
      What does it matter if you didn't win?
    • Synonyms: फ़रक़ पड़ना (faraq paṛnā)
  6. to be born
  7. to pass by, elapse
    • दो साल हुए है जबसे मैंने नौकरी शुरू की।
      do sāl hue hai jabse mainne naukrī śurū kī.
      Two years have elapsed since I started (my) job.
  8. (with instrumental-case subject) to be done, committed
    • मुझसे एक ग़लती हो गई है।mujhse ek ġaltī ho gaī hai.I have made a mistake. (literally, “A mistake has been committed by me.”)
  9. a tense auxiliary
    • मैं खा रहा हूँma͠i khā rahā hū̃.I am eating.
    • वह हवाईजहाज़ को देख रहा था
      vah havāījhāz ko dekh rahā thā.
      He was watching the airplane.
  10. a modal auxiliary
    1. indicates the presumptive (a kind of irrealis) mood
      • उसने नाश्ता खाया होगाusne nāśtā khāyā hogā.He probably ate breakfast.
    2. to have to, must
      • मैं आज पार्टी पे नहीं आ पाऊंगा, मुझे काम करना है
        ma͠i āj pārṭī pe nahī̃ ā pāūṅgā, mujhe kām karnā hai.
        I can't go the party today, I have to do work.
  11. a conjunct verb turning any noun or adjective into a verb
    • खड़ा होनाkhaṛā honāto stand up
    • बड़ा होनाbaṛā honāto grow up
    • कूल होनाkūl honāto be cool
    • परेशान होनाpareśān honāto be worried, anxious

ConjugationEdit

Conjugation of होना
Infinitive forms of होना
infinitive direct होना
indirect होने
Imperative forms of होना
singular तू हो
singular or plural तुम हो
आप हूजिए
Other non-aspectual forms of होना
conjunctive होकर
agentive / prospective होनेवाला, होनेवाली


Conjugation of होना with masculine forms
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
मैं (ma͠i) तू (tū) ये (ye) हम (ham) तुम (tum) ये (ye)
indicative present हूँ (hū̃) है (hai) है (hai) हैं (ha͠i) हो (ho) हैं (ha͠i)
past imperfect था (thā) था (thā) था (thā) थे (the) थे (the) थे (the)
preterite हुआ (huā) हुआ (huā) हुआ (huā) हुए (hue) हुए (hue) हुए (hue)
future हूँगा (hū̃ṅgā) होगा (hogā) होगा (hogā) होंगे (hõṅge) होगे (hoge) होंगे (hõṅge)
Conjugation of होना with feminine forms
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
मैं (ma͠i) तू (tū) ये (ye) हम (ham) तुम (tum) ये (ye)
indicative present हूँ (hū̃) है (hai) है (hai) हैं (ha͠i) हो (ho) हैं (ha͠i)
past imperfect थी (thī) थी (thī) थी (thī) थीं (thī̃) थीं (thī̃) थीं (thī̃)
preterite हुई (huī) हुई (huī) हुई (huī) हुईं (huī̃) हुईं (huī̃) हुईं (huī̃)
future हूँगी (hū̃ṅgī) होगी (hogī) होगी (hogī) होंगी (hõṅgī) होगी (hogī) होंगी (hõṅgī)

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Bahri, Hardev (1989), “होना”, in Siksarthi Hindi-Angrejhi Sabdakosa [Learners' Hindi-English Dictionary], Delhi: Rajpal & Sons
  • Yamuna Kachru (2006) Hindi (London African and Oriental language library; 12)[1], John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 9789027238122
  • Caturvedi, Mahendra; Bhola Nath Tiwari (1970), “होना”, in A practical Hindi-English dictionary, Delhi: National Publishing House
  • Syamasundara Dasa (1965-1975), “होना”, in Hindi Sabdasagara [Comprehensive Hindi Dictionary] (in Hindi), Kashi [Varanasi]: Nagari Pracarini Sabha
  • Platts, John T. (1884), “होना”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & co.

Old HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

VerbEdit

होना (honā)

  1. to be
    • Kabir 76.0
      मैं सबनन मैं अर मैं न हूँ सब।
      maiṃ sabanana maiṃ ara maiṃ na hūm̐ saba.
      I am present in all, I am not this all.

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Jaroslav Strnad (2013) Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī : Edition and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr Vānī Poems From Rājasthān (Brill's Indological Library; 45), Leiden, OCLC 853683653