होना

HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

Inherited from Old Hindi होना (honā), from Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀪𑁄𑀤𑀺 (bhodi), from Sanskrit भवति (bhávati, to happen, to become), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *bʰáwHati, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéwHeti (to grow, become, come into being, appear).

Cognate with Nepali हुनु (hunu), Punjabi ਹੋਣਾ (hoṇā), Gujarati હોવું (hovũ), Marathi होणे (hoṇe), Bengali হওয়া (hôẇa), Assamese হোৱা (hüa). Other Indo-European cognates include Persian بودن(budan), Russian быть (bytʹ), English be, Latin fuī, Spanish fui.

The past imperfect forms derive from Sanskrit स्था (sthā). Compare Gujarati થવું (thavũ, to become).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Delhi Hindi) IPA(key): /ɦoː.nɑː/, [ɦoː.n̪äː]

VerbEdit

होना (honā) (ambitransitive, Urdu spelling ہونا‎)

  1. (transitive, copulative) to be (used to indicate that the subject and object are the same)
    आपका नाम क्या है?āpkā nām kyā hai?What is your name?
  2. (transitive, copulative) to be, become (to have or gain the quality of)
    खाना बहुत बुरा हैkhānā bahut burā hai.The food is very bad.
    तुम गुस्सा हो क्या?tum gussā ho kyā?Are you angry?
    वह बहुत ग़ुस्सा हुआvah bahut ġussā huā.He was/became very angry.
  3. (intransitive) to exist
    आस्तिक कहते है कि भगवान है
    āstik kahte hai ki bhagvān hai.
    Theists say that God exists.
  4. (intransitive) to be born
    एक बच्चा हुआek baccā huā.A child was born.
    Synonyms: पैदा होना (paidā honā), जन्म लेना (janma lenā)
  5. (intransitive) to occur, happen, take place
    घर में एक मुसीबत हुई है।ghar mẽ ek musībat huī hai.A disaster has occurred at home.
    क्या हुआ?kyā huā?What happened?
    Synonyms: घटना (ghaṭnā), घटित होना (ghaṭit honā)
  6. (intransitive) to be (occupy a certain location)
    कहाँ है मेरा भतीजा ?kahā̃ hai merā bhatījā ?Where is my nephew?
  7. (intransitive) to result, have an effect
    अगर तू नहीं जीती तो क्या हुआ?
    agar tū nahī̃ jītī to kyā huā?
    What does it matter if you didn't win?
    Synonym: फ़रक़ पड़ना (faraq paṛnā)
  8. (intransitive) to pass by, elapse
    दो साल हुए हैं जबसे मैंने नौकरी शुरू की है।
    do sāl hue ha͠i jabse mainne naukrī śurū kī hai.
    Two years have elapsed since I started (my) job.
  9. (intransitive, with instrumental-case subject) to be done, committed
    मुझसे एक ग़लती हो गई है।mujhse ek ġaltī ho gaī hai.I have made a mistake. (literally, “A mistake has been committed by me.”)
  10. (intransitive) a tense auxiliary
    मैं खा रहा हूँma͠i khā rahā hū̃.I am eating.
    वह हवाईजहाज़ को देख रहा था
    vah havāījhāz ko dekh rahā thā.
    He was watching the airplane.
  11. (intransitive) a modal auxiliary
    1. indicates the presumptive (a kind of irrealis) mood
      उसने नाश्ता खाया होगाusne nāśtā khāyā hogā.He probably/must have ate breakfast.
    2. to have to, must
      मैं आज पार्टी में नहीं आ पाऊँगा, मुझे काम करना है
      ma͠i āj pārṭī mẽ nahī̃ ā pāūṅgā, mujhe kām karnā hai.
      I can't come to the party today, I have to work.
  12. (intransitive) a conjunct verb turning any noun or adjective into a verb
    खड़ा होनाkhaṛā honāto stand up
    बड़ा होनाbaṛā honāto grow up
    कूल होनाkūl honāto be cool
    परेशान होनाpareśān honāto be worried, anxious

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


Old HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Sauraseni Prakrit 𑀪𑁄𑀤𑀺 (bhodi), from Sanskrit भवति (bhavati), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *bʰáwHati, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéwHeti. Compare Old Gujarati हूइ (hūi, 3p. sing. pres.).

VerbEdit

होना (honā)

  1. to be
    • Kabīr 76.0:
      मैं सबनन मैं अर मैं न हूँ सब।
      maiṃ sabanana maiṃ ara maiṃ na hūm̐ saba.
      I am present in all, I am not this all.

DescendantsEdit

  • Hindi: होना (honā)

ReferencesEdit

  • Jaroslav Strnad (2013) Morphology and Syntax of Old Hindī : Edition and Analysis of One Hundred Kabīr Vānī Poems From Rājasthān (Brill's Indological Library; 45), Leiden, OCLC 853683653