See also:
U+9677, 陷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9677

[U+9676]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9678]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 170, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓中弓竹難 (NLNHX), four-corner 77277, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1354, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41707
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1858, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4140, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9677

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Transcribed ancient scripts
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡroːms) and ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (row of hills) + phonetic (OC *kʰloːmʔ, *ɡroːms, person falling into trap).

Originally written .

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • xie3 - literary;
  • han3 - vernacular.
Note:
  • 3hhi - literary;
  • 3hhe - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian⁵¹/
Harbin /ɕian⁵³/
/ɕyan⁵³/
Tianjin /ɕian⁵³/
Jinan /ɕiã²¹/
Qingdao /ɕiã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕian³¹²/
Xi'an /ɕiã⁵³/
Xining /ɕiã²¹³/
Yinchuan /ɕian¹³/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /ɕian²¹³/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn³⁵/ ~害
/xan⁴²/
Chengdu /xan¹³/
/ɕian¹³/
Guiyang /ɕian²¹³/
/xan²¹³/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃²¹²/
Nanjing /ɕien⁴⁴/
Hefei /ɕiĩ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie⁴⁵/ 下~
/xæ̃⁴⁵/ ~在泥裡
Pingyao /ɕiɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ɕie⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɦe²³/
/ɦie²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦa²²/
Hui Shexian /ɕie²²/
/xɛ²²/
Tunxi /siɛ⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /xan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /han⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /han²¹/
Hakka Meixian /ham⁵³/
Taoyuan /hɑm⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ham²²/
Nanning /ham²²/
Hong Kong /hɐm²²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /ham²²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /hɑŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xaŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /ham³¹/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ham³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (151)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter heamH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠɛmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚæmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɐmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəɨmH/
Li
Rong
/ɣɐmH/
Wang
Li
/ɣɐmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣămH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
haam6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ hɛmH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˁromʔ-s/
English fall into a pit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13556
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡroːms/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. to submerge; to sink; to plunge
  2. to be captured
  3. to breach; to break through; to make a breakthrough
  4. trap (device designed to catch animals)
  5. to frame; to entrap; to set up; to bring up someone on false charges
  6. to sink
  7. fault; defect; drawback

Synonyms edit

  • (to breach):
  • (trap): 陷阱 (xiànjǐng)
  • (to frame):
  • (fault):

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji edit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. fall into
  2. cave in
  3. fall (castle)
  4. slide into

Readings edit

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC heamH). Recorded as Middle Korean 함〯 (hǎm) (Yale: ham) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 빠질 (ppajil ham))

  1. Hanja form? of (fall into).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: hãm, hẳm, hỏm, hoắm, hóm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.