See also:
U+9A57, 驗
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9A57

[U+9A56]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9A58]

Translingual

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Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 187, +13, 23 strokes, cangjie input 尸火人一人 (SFOMO), four-corner 78336, composition )

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1445, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45024
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1970, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4580, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+9A57

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𩥾

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ŋrams) : semantic + phonetic (OC *skʰlam).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • ngiam7 - Shantou, Jieyang;
  • ngiêm7 - Chaozhou;
  • ngiang7 - Chenghai.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian⁵¹/
Harbin /ian⁵³/
Tianjin /ian⁵³/
Jinan /iã²¹/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian³¹²/
Xi'an /iã⁴⁴/
Xining /iã²¹³/
Yinchuan /ian¹³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /ian²¹³/
Wuhan /niɛn³⁵/
Chengdu /ȵian¹³/
Guiyang /nian²¹³/
/ian²¹³/
Kunming /iɛ̃²¹²/
Nanjing /ien⁴⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /ie⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ie̞³⁵/
Hohhot /ie⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ³¹/
Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi²²/
Hui Shexian /ne²²/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiam⁵³/
Taoyuan /ŋiɑm⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²²/
Nanning /jim²²/
Hong Kong /jim²²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /giam²²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ŋiɛŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ŋiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /ŋiam³¹/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ŋiam³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (154)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ngjemH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠiᴇmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚiɛmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiæmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋjiamH/
Li
Rong
/ŋjɛmH/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɛmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯ɛmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jim6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjemH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-qʰr[a]m-s/
English verify

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10218
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋrams/

Definitions

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  1. to test; to examine; to inspect
  2. to verify
  3. to produce the desired effect
  4. intended result

Compounds

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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Readings

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Korean

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Etymology

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From a corrupted or unorthodox reading. The original reading is (eom) based on Middle Chinese (MC ngjemH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅥᆷ〮 (Yale: ngem)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eum (heom))

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: nghiệm

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