Latin

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Italic *klaudō, from Proto-Indo-European *kleh₂u-de-ti, from Proto-Indo-European *kleh₂u- (key, hook, nail).

Cognate with Ancient Greek κλείς (kleís, bar, bolt, key), Old High German sliozan (to close, conclude, lock), Old Saxon slūtan (to close, conclude, lock).

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Verb

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claudō (present infinitive claudere, perfect active clausī, supine clausum); third conjugation

  1. to shut up, close, lock
    Synonyms: retineō, intersaepiō, interclūdō, inclūdō, operiō, premō, obserō
    Antonyms: adaperiō, aperiō, patefaciō
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 1.232–233:
      “quid Trōēs potuēre, quibus, tot fūnera passīs,
      cūnctus ob Ītaliam terrārum clauditur orbis?”
      “What have the Trojans done, for whom, having suffered so many losses, the whole circle of the lands has been closed. [And all] for the sake of Italy.”
      (Venus, speaking to Jupiter, laments the plight of the Trojans as they wander the Mediterranean shores.)
  2. to imprison, confine
    Synonyms: comprehendo, retineo, intersaepio, includo, intercludo, arceo, impedio, urgeō, coerceō, prohibeo
  3. to encompass, surround
    Synonyms: complector, amplector, stīpō, circumdō, circumveniō
  4. to besiege, blockade
    Synonyms: circumveniō, circumeō, circumsistō, circumdō, obsideō, assideō, circumsaepiō, saepiō, obstruō
  5. to limit, restrict
    Synonyms: delīmitō, līmitō, inclūdō, fīniō, coerceō, minuō, moderor
  6. to terminate, finish, complete
    Synonyms: perficiō, dēfungor, cōnficiō, agō, cumulō, absolvō, nāvō, perpetrō, inclūdō, expleō, fungor, efficiō, patrō, conclūdō, condō, peragō, trānsigō, exsequor, gerō, impleō, exhauriō
Conjugation
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   Conjugation of claudō (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present claudō claudis claudit claudimus clauditis claudunt
imperfect claudēbam claudēbās claudēbat claudēbāmus claudēbātis claudēbant
future claudam claudēs claudet claudēmus claudētis claudent
perfect clausī clausistī clausit clausimus clausistis clausērunt,
clausēre
pluperfect clauseram clauserās clauserat clauserāmus clauserātis clauserant
future perfect clauserō clauseris clauserit clauserimus clauseritis clauserint
passive present claudor clauderis,
claudere
clauditur claudimur claudiminī clauduntur
imperfect claudēbar claudēbāris,
claudēbāre
claudēbātur claudēbāmur claudēbāminī claudēbantur
future claudar claudēris,
claudēre
claudētur claudēmur claudēminī claudentur
perfect clausus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect clausus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect clausus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present claudam claudās claudat claudāmus claudātis claudant
imperfect clauderem clauderēs clauderet clauderēmus clauderētis clauderent
perfect clauserim clauserīs clauserit clauserīmus clauserītis clauserint
pluperfect clausissem clausissēs clausisset clausissēmus clausissētis clausissent
passive present claudar claudāris,
claudāre
claudātur claudāmur claudāminī claudantur
imperfect clauderer clauderēris,
clauderēre
clauderētur clauderēmur clauderēminī clauderentur
perfect clausus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect clausus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present claude claudite
future clauditō clauditō clauditōte clauduntō
passive present claudere claudiminī
future clauditor clauditor clauduntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives claudere clausisse clausūrum esse claudī clausum esse clausum īrī
participles claudēns clausūrus clausus claudendus,
claudundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
claudendī claudendō claudendum claudendō clausum clausū
Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Gallo-Romance:
    • Catalan: cloure
    • Franco-Provençal: cllôre
    • Old French: clore (see there for further descendants)
    • Occitan: claure
  • Ibero-Romance:
  • Insular Romance:

Reflexes of the variant clūdere:

Etymology 2

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Verb

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claudō (present infinitive claudere, supine clausum); third conjugation, no perfect stem

  1. Alternative form of claudeō (limp)
Conjugation
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   Conjugation of claudō (third conjugation, no perfect stem)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present claudō claudis claudit claudimus clauditis claudunt
imperfect claudēbam claudēbās claudēbat claudēbāmus claudēbātis claudēbant
future claudam claudēs claudet claudēmus claudētis claudent
passive present claudor clauderis,
claudere
clauditur claudimur claudiminī clauduntur
imperfect claudēbar claudēbāris,
claudēbāre
claudēbātur claudēbāmur claudēbāminī claudēbantur
future claudar claudēris,
claudēre
claudētur claudēmur claudēminī claudentur
perfect clausus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect clausus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect clausus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present claudam claudās claudat claudāmus claudātis claudant
imperfect clauderem clauderēs clauderet clauderēmus clauderētis clauderent
passive present claudar claudāris,
claudāre
claudātur claudāmur claudāminī claudantur
imperfect clauderer clauderēris,
clauderēre
clauderētur clauderēmur clauderēminī clauderentur
perfect clausus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect clausus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present claude claudite
future clauditō clauditō clauditōte clauduntō
passive present claudere claudiminī
future clauditor clauditor clauduntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives claudere clausūrum esse claudī clausum esse clausum īrī
participles claudēns clausūrus clausus claudendus,
claudundus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
claudendī claudendō claudendum claudendō clausum clausū

Adjective

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claudō

  1. dative/ablative masculine/neuter singular of claudus

References

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  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) to turn a deaf ear to, to open one's ears to..: aures claudere, patefacere (e.g. veritati, assentatoribus)
    • (ambiguous) to open, shut the door: ostium, fores aperire, claudere
    • (ambiguous) to bring up the rear: agmen claudere, cogere
    • (ambiguous) to besiege a city: oppidum obsidione claudere
  • claudo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • claudo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • claudo in Enrico Olivetti, editor (2003-2024), Dizionario Latino, Olivetti Media Communication
  • claudo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Walther von Wartburg (1928–2002) “claudĕre”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 2: C Q K, page 750