See also: Urban

English edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Middle French urbain (belonging to a city, urban; courteous, refined, urbane) (modern French urbain), or from its etymon Latin urbānus (of or belonging to a city, urban; of manners or style: like those of city dwellers: cultivated, polished, refined, sophisticated) + English -an (suffix meaning ‘of or pertaining to’ forming adjectives). Urbānus is derived from urbs (city; walled town; Rome) (further etymology uncertain, possibly from Proto-Indo-European *gʰerdʰ- (to encircle, enclose; a belt; an enclosure, fence) or *werbʰ- (to enclose)) + -ānus (suffix meaning ‘of or pertaining to’ forming adjectives).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

urban (comparative more urban, superlative most urban)

  1. Of, pertaining to, characteristic of, or happening or located in, a city or town; of, pertaining to, or characteristic of life in such a place, especially when contrasted with the countryside.
    urban life    urban traffic
    • 2013 May 10, Audrey Garric, “Urban canopies let nature bloom”, in The Guardian Weekly[4], volume 188, number 22, page 30:
      As towns continue to grow, replanting vegetation has become a form of urban utopia and green roofs are spreading fast. Last year 1m square metres of plant-covered roofing was built in France, as much as in the US, and 10 times more than in Germany, the pioneer in this field. In Paris 22 hectares of roof have been planted, out of a potential total of 80 hectares.
  2. Living in a city or town.
    • 1601, C[aius] Plinius Secundus [i.e., Pliny the Elder], “[Book XVIII.] Of Iugerum, and Actus. Of the Ancient Lawes Ordained for Cattell in Old Time. How Often and at what Times Corn and Victuals were Exceeding Cheape at Rome. What Noble and Famous Persons Addicted Themselves Wholly to Husbandrie and Tillage..”, in Philemon Holland, transl., The Historie of the World. Commonly Called, The Naturall Historie of C. Plinius Secundus. [], 1st tome, London: [] Adam Islip, published 1635, →OCLC, pages 550–551:
      Inſomuch, as thoſe citizens vvere reputed for cheeſe and principall, vvho vvere poſſeſſed of land and living in the countrey: and theſe made the State, called the Ruſtick Tribes, in Rome: vvheras contrarivviſe the other eſtate, reputed the meaner in degree, vvas named the Vrbane Tribes; conſiſting of Artiſanes & ſuch like as vvere not landed perſons: into vvhich, if a man vvere transferred from any of the reſt, it vvas thought a great ſhame and diſgrace, as if hee vvere reproched for idleneſſe and negligence in husbandrie.
    • 1607, Edward Topsell, “Of the Vulgar Little Mouse”, in The Historie of Fovre-footed Beastes. [], London: [] William Iaggard, →OCLC, page 504:
      The Epithets of myce are thes; ſhort, ſmall, fearful, peaceable, ridiculous, ruſtik, or country mouſe, vrbane, or citty mouſe, []
  3. Having authority or jurisdiction over a city or town.
    • 1651, James Howell, “Of Officers or Magistrats in Generall”, in S.P.Q.V.: A Survay of the Signorie of Venice, [], London: [] Richard Lowndes [], →OCLC, page 16:
      All theſe Magiſtrats are but temporary, and have a time limited them; the Urbane or Citty Magiſtrats ſome of them continue in office 6. months, others 8. months, others are annuall; []
  4. (US, proscribed, outdated) Relating to contemporary African American culture, especially in music.
  5. (US, UK, euphemistic, offensive) (of inhabitants or residents) Black; African American.

Usage notes edit

  • The word "urban" in a musical context came to be controversial and it was described as perpetuating and reinforcing the racial stereotyping of black communities, especially black musicians,[1] and as a "catchall for music created by Black artists, regardless of genre", leading to the music industry's replacement of it with more appropriate terms.[2]
  • "Urban" as a descriptor of black inhabitants or residents is an offensive and stereotypical usage; see Dictionary.com's "Historical usage of urban" for the explanation.[3]

Alternative forms edit

Antonyms edit

Coordinate terms edit

Derived terms edit

Translations edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Kehinde Andrews (2018 August 14) “'Urban' sounds: it's time to stop using this hackneyed term for black music”, in The Guardian[1]:Industry executives are increasingly railing against the word, which is born out of racial stereotyping of black communities.
  2. ^ Sophie Lewis (2020 June 11) “Grammy Awards renames controversial "urban" category”, in CBS News[2]:The Grammys has announced that it is dropping the term "urban" from its awards show following criticism from black artists.
  3. ^ Urban[3], Dictionary.com, 2012:5 Offensive. (used as a euphemism for Black or African American, rather than in reference to cities or their residents)

Further reading edit

  • urban”, in The Century Dictionary [], New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911, →OCLC.
  • urban in Keywords for Today: A 21st Century Vocabulary, edited by The Keywords Project, Colin MacCabe, Holly Yanacek, 2018.
  • Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, Springfield, Massachusetts, G.&C. Merriam Co., 1967
  • urban”, in OneLook Dictionary Search.

Anagrams edit

Esperanto edit

Adjective edit

urban

  1. accusative singular of urba

German edit

Etymology edit

From Latin urbanus.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

urban (strong nominative masculine singular urbaner, comparative urbaner, superlative am urbansten)

  1. urban
    Synonym: städtisch

Declension edit

Further reading edit

  • urban” in Duden online
  • urban” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology edit

From Latin urbanus.

Adjective edit

urban (neuter singular urbant, definite singular and plural urbane)

  1. urban
  2. urbane

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology edit

From Latin urbanus.

Adjective edit

urban (neuter singular urbant, definite singular and plural urbane)

  1. urban
  2. urbane

References edit

Piedmontese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Latin urbānus.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

urban

  1. urban

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from French urbain, from Latin urbanus.

Adjective edit

urban m or n (feminine singular urbană, masculine plural urbani, feminine and neuter plural urbane)

  1. urbane

Declension edit

Related terms edit

Serbo-Croatian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ûrbaːn/
  • Hyphenation: ur‧ban

Adjective edit

ȕrbān (Cyrillic spelling у̏рба̄н, definite ȕrbānī)

  1. urban

Declension edit

Slovene edit

Etymology edit

Ultimately from Latin urbānus.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

urbȃn (not comparable)

  1. urban

Inflection edit

 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Hard
masculine feminine neuter
nom. sing. urbán urbána urbáno
singular
masculine feminine neuter
nominative urbán ind
urbáni def
urbána urbáno
genitive urbánega urbáne urbánega
dative urbánemu urbáni urbánemu
accusative nominativeinan or
genitive
anim
urbáno urbáno
locative urbánem urbáni urbánem
instrumental urbánim urbáno urbánim
dual
masculine feminine neuter
nominative urbána urbáni urbáni
genitive urbánih urbánih urbánih
dative urbánima urbánima urbánima
accusative urbána urbáni urbáni
locative urbánih urbánih urbánih
instrumental urbánima urbánima urbánima
plural
masculine feminine neuter
nominative urbáni urbáne urbána
genitive urbánih urbánih urbánih
dative urbánim urbánim urbánim
accusative urbáne urbáne urbána
locative urbánih urbánih urbánih
instrumental urbánimi urbánimi urbánimi

Synonyms edit

Further reading edit

  • urban”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran