See also: vājs

Contents

LatvianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

(dialectal form) vājs

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *wāy-, *way-(weak), perhaps derived from *wē-(to blow). Initially there were u- and o-stem forms (compare Lithuanian dialectal vójus(weak, sick), Latvian dialectal vājs); ultimately replaced by a yu-stem variant, yielding standard language vājš. On the meaning change, compare pūst, both “to move, advance with the wind blowing” and “to moan, to complain.” Cognates include Sanskrit वायति(vā́jati, to wane, to disappear, to die; to blow) (also वाति(vā́ti, to blow)).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

vājš (def. vājais, comp. vājāks, sup. visvājākais; adv. vāji)

  1. (of people, animals) weak (not having well developed muscles)
    vājš bērns‎ ― weak child
    vājais dzimums‎ ― the weak sex (i.e., women)
    vājš suns‎ ― weak dog
    askētiski vāja seja‎ ― ascetically weak face
    nekad neesmu redzējusi tik vāju cilvēku‎ ― I have never seen such a weak person
  2. (of bodies, body parts) weak, poor (which works badly, has little or no strength)
    vājas plaušas‎ ― weak lungs
    vāja muskulatūra‎ ― weak muscles
    vājas ausis‎ ― weak ears (i.e., bad hearing)
    vāja asinsrite‎ ― weak, poor blood circulation
    vāja elpa‎ ― weak, poor breath(ing)
    vāja veselība‎ ― weak, poor health
    garā vājš‎ ― weak in the spirit (i.e., mentally ill)
  3. (of people, their personality) weak (without courage, without strength in a difficult situation; vulnerable to negative influences, temptation, etc.)
    vājš raksturs‎ ― weak character
    pašnāvība ir vāju cilvēku aizsarglīdzeklis‎ ― suicide is the defense of weak people
    viņas ir vājas un iespaidojamas‎ ― they (children) are weak and impressionable
    vājais, kā mani tavs vājums žņaudz!‎ ― weak one, your weakness is strangling me!
    ak, mana sirds!... vai tu tik vāja? vai tu nespēj nīst?‎ ― oh, my heart!... are you so weak? can't you hate?
  4. (of people) weak (not sufficiently qualified, not really good, skilled in his/her work, bad at fulfilling his/her duties)
    vājš darbinieks jāatlaiž, lai nedemoralizētu pārējos‎ ― weak employees must be fired, so as not to demoralize the others
    vīrieši jau vispār ir vāji psihologi, sevišķi sievietes pishes saprašanā‎ ― men are in general weak psychologists, particularly in understanding the psyche of women
  5. (of machiness, engines) weak, poor (having little power)
    vājš motors, agregāts‎ ― weak, poor motor, unit
  6. (of natural phenomena, light, sounds) weak, mild, dim (having low intensity)
    vājš vējš‎ ― weak wind
    vājas zemestrīces‎ ― weak, mild earthquakes
    vājš blāzmas atspulgs‎ ― weak, dim glow (lit. glow reflection)
    vāja atbalss‎ ― weak echo
  7. (of states, conditions) weak, poor (not good, not sufficient, less than normal, ideal)
    vāja pretestība‎ ― weak resistance
    miglā redzamība vāja‎ ― in the fog the visibility (is) weak, poor
    zālē vāja dzirdamība‎ ― in the hall there is weak, poor audibility
  8. (of solutions, infusions, beverages) weak (having low concentration, low degree of ionization, low alcohol content)
    vāja vērmeļu tēja‎ ― weak wormwood tea
    vāja skābe‎ ― weak acid
    vājš vīns‎ ― weak wine
  9. (of works, performances) weak, poor (not satisfactory, showing low quality)
    vājš romāns, koncerts, dziedājums‎ ― weak novel, concert, singing
    vājš kompozīcija, lekcija‎ ― weak composition, lecture
    vāja izrāde, izstāde‎ ― weak, poor performance, show
    vāja darba organizācija‎ ― poor work organization
    vāja disciplīna‎ ― weak discipline
  10. (of political, social and economic institutions) weak (ineffective, underdeveloped, having low power)
    vāja armija‎ ― weak army
    vāja uzņēmums‎ ― weak enterprise, company, business
  11. (of soil, harvest) weak, poor (having low quality, low yield)
    vāja zeme, raža‎ ― weak soil, harvest
  12. (of food) poor (not rich, not caloric)
    kareivju ēdiens kļuva pavisam vājš; maizes vietā izsniedza sausiņus‎ ― the soldiers' food became very weak; instead of bread, they were given crackers
  13. (figuratively, of feelings, mental activities) weak, poor (insufficient, unsatisfactory)
    dot slimniekam vājas cerības‎ ― to give the patient poor expectations
    vājš mierinājums‎ ― weak, poor consolation

DeclensionEdit

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “vājš”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7