Last modified on 2 April 2015, at 01:01

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 72 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 廿日 (TA), four-corner 44601, composition)

  1. formerly
  2. ancient
  3. in the beginning

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 492, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13816
  • Dae Jaweon: page 855, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1488, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+6614

ChineseEdit

-
simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (昔), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 心 (16)
Final: 昔
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 思積切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/siᴇk̚/ /si̯ɛk̚/ /siɛk̚/ /siɛk̚/ /siajk̚/ /sĭɛk̚/ /siæk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ sjek › /*[s]Ak/ in the past

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13309 0 /*sjaːɡ/

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term
むかし
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. The muka portion derives from the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku, to face opposite to something), implying “that which stands opposite from the present”. The shi portion is suffix (shi) indicating direction, also found in words 縦し (tatashi, the standing or vertical direction), 横し (yokoshi, the sideways or horizontal direction). This appears to be a somewhat rare alternative form, more commonly encountered as (sa), and may be cognate with the nominalizing adjective ending (sa).[1]

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

(hiragana むかし, romaji mukashi)

  1. once (in the indeterminate past)
     (むかし) ()映画 (えいが)
    mukashi mita eiga
    a movie I once saw

NounEdit

(hiragana むかし, romaji mukashi)

  1. the past, old times
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Toshikage)[3]
      むかし、式部大輔、左大弁かけて清原の王ありけり。
    昔と — past and the present
    昔の自分 — my past self
    昔からの友達 — a longtime friend ("a friend since old times")
    昔に戻る — to return to the past
  2. ancient
    昔の — ancient people
    もう昔のだ。— That's ancient history.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1959 April 16 [c. 970-999], Tama Kōno, Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 10: Utsubo Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-000-60010-9:

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(seok, chak) (hangeul , , revised seok, chak, McCune-Reischauer sŏk, ch'ak, Yale sek, chak)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

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