Last modified on 25 August 2014, at 01:56
See also: , , and

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
子-order.gif

EtymologyEdit

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby, with a large head and spread arms. The legs are wrapped in a blanket. Compare with , where the arms are wrapped. Also compare , of the same origin.

子 子 子 子
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Han characterEdit

(radical 39 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 弓木 (ND), four-corner 17407, composition))

  1. offspring, child, son, daughter, being
  2. fruit, seed of
  3. first of twelve earth branches (十二支): rat or mouse () of Chinese zodiac
  4. master, e.g. Kongzi and Laozi meaning "Master Kong" and "Master Lao"
  5. a suffix indicating that the term to which it is attached is a noun

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 277, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6930
  • Dae Jaweon: page 543, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1006, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5B50

See alsoEdit


ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (子), Pronunciation (1/1)

Initial: 精 (13)
Final: 之
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 即里切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɨX/ /t͡siX/ /t͡siəX/ /t͡sɨX/ /t͡sɨX/ /t͡sĭəX/ /t͡sieX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ tsiX › /*tsəʔ {*[ts]əʔ}/ 1st earthly branch
‹ tsiX › /*tsəʔ/ child; gentleman, master
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
17857 0 /*ʔslɯʔ/

NounEdit

  1. (literary) son; child
  2. (literary) person
  3. (astrology) First Earthly Branch (地支 or 十二支) : rat in the Chinese zodiac, 11th solar month, 11pm to 1am (midnight)
  4. (literary) master
  5. Viscount, fourth of five orders of chinese nobility 五等爵位
See alsoEdit

PrefixEdit

  1. young; tender; small
  2. sub-

SuffixEdit

  1. (Intermediate Mandarin) a suffix for small objects
  2. (Intermediate Mandarin) a suffix for single-syllable nouns

SuffixEdit

  1. seed
    • 葵花子 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad. and simp.]kuíhuāzǐ [Pinyin] — sunflower seed
  2. fruit
  3. egg

PronounEdit

  1. (literary) you
CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Old Japanese.[1] Seen in the Kojiki and the Man'yōshū, two of the oldest examples of written Japanese. Cognate with (ko, silkworm). Also possibly cognate with (ko, little, diminutive prefix).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (less commonly used)

NounEdit

(hiragana , romaji ko)

  1. a child
    男のおとこのotoko no ko — male child: a boy
  2. (figuratively) a girl, especially a dear or desired one (compare use of English baby, babe)
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū (book 7, poem #1266); text here
      大舟乎 荒海尓榜出 八船多氣 吾見之等之 目見者知之母
      大船を 荒海に漕ぎ出で や船たけ 我が見しらが まみはしるしも
      おほぶねを あるみにこぎで やふねたけ わがみしらが まみはしるしも
      Ōbune o / arumi ni kogi de / ya fune take / waga mishi kora ga / mami wa shirushi mo
      Rowing the big boat into the rough seas, putting our backs into it, the looks of those girls I saw are clear [in my mind]}}
  3. a smaller or younger version of a bigger object
    きのkinoko — a "tree's child / little one": a mushroom
    竹のたけのtakenoko — a "bamboo's child / little one": a bamboo shoot
Derived termsEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , romaji ko-)

  1. an object which has a subservient or derivative role relative to another object
    会社 がいしゃkogaisha — a subsidiary
    いぬkoinu — a puppy
Derived termsEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana , romaji -ko)

  1. suffix used in female given names, such as 智子 (ともこ, ​Tomoko), 英子 (えいこ, ​Eiko), 秀子 (ひでこ, ​Hideko), 美奈子 (みなこ, ​Minako)
  2. (rare) suffix used in male given names
  3. an object having a particular state or property (sometimes diminutive)
    ふりfuriko — an object that swings: a pendulum
  4. roe (only when preceded by a fish name, or fish-related prefix)
    明太めんたいmentaiko — pollock roe
    とびtobiko — flying fish roe
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
on'yomi
Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (tsiX). Compare modern Mandarin ().

The goon reading of shi is likely the original borrowing. The tōon reading su appears later, and only shows up in certain set terms borrowed from Chinese, where it seems to serve as a kind of nominalizing suffix.

PronunciationEdit

  • On'yomi
  • IPA(key): [ɕi], [sɯᵝ] (second reading less common, only used in word-final position)

AffixEdit

(hiragana , romaji shi) (alternative reading hiragana , romaji su)

  1. a child
  2. an object which has a subservient or derivative role relative to another object
  3. an object having a particular state or property (sometimes diminutive)
    中性ちゅうせいchūseishi — a neutral small thing: a neutron
    isu — literally, a chair small thing: a chair
Usage notesEdit
  • This affix is never used in isolation. It is only used in on'yomi compounds.
  • In some kanji compounds, is part of the word but does not carry much meaning in Japanese, as in 椅子 (isu, chair). Possibly because of this erosion of meaning, spelling out in some compounds has become optional, as in 椰子 vs. (yashi, a palm tree), or 柚子 vs. (yuzu, an aromatic citron).
  • In some compounds, the shi or su reading becomes voiced as ji or zu due to rendaku.
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ja)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: ja, McCune-Reischauer: cha)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Middle ChineseEdit

Han characterEdit

(*tziə̌)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tử, , , tở, bình, huỳnh)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReferencesEdit